The Turkic people: both those who fleed from mongols and those who were in search for easy booty-13th century. One of these people : the Ottoman (leader named Osman) dominated the people and made a new empire based in Anatolia.
1350’s: Ottomans: Asia Minor all the way to Europe. (Balkans, Thrace)
Ottomans bypassed through Constantinople (great capital of Byzantine Empire) rather than conquering-14th century
By the 15th century- ottomans who had switched between alliances and warfare with the Byzantines- overtook the capital- Constantinople.
7 weeks- spring of 1453: Ottoman Sultan: Mehmed II- invaded the triple ring walls of the city. –successfully conquered
Extended empire into Syria, Egypt, across North Africa, arab world. Spread through Balkans into Hungary and around Black and Red Seas. Ottomans were a large naval power in the Medi Sea- captured Rhodes, Crete and Cyprus. Threatened Italy with invasion multiple times.-venetians and Genoese. 1683 captured capital of Austrian Hapsburg dynasty at Vienna. Ottoman power decreasing at this time. Declined by 19th century.
A State Geared to Warfare
Military leaders important
Economy- warfare and expansion
Turkic cavalry- ottomans early conquest- became the warrior aristocracy. They were granted control over land and peasants (annexed) for support of household and military retainers.
15th century: warrior class vs. religious leaders and administrators from other social groups for control of the expanding Ottoman bureaucracy.
Warrior power decreasing but they built regional and local support-