Essay about Chapter 008 community powerpoint

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CH. 8
Community Health Education

Marcie Bernard

Copyright © 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

Health Education …
… is any combination of learning experiences designed to predispose, enable, and reinforce voluntary behavior conducive to health in individuals, groups or communities.

– Green and Kreuter, 2005


Health Education’s Goals

To understand health behaviors and to translate knowledge into relevant interventions and strategies for health enhancement, disease prevention, and chronic illness management

To enhance wellness and decrease disability

To influence individuals within their social environment for improved health and well-being


Florence Nightingale founder of modern nursing

emphasized that health teaching is one of the most fundamental nursing principles


Nurses Role in
Community Education

Promote health education activities and services outside the walls of hospitals, in settings such as
Young Men’s/Women’s Christian Associations
(YMCA/YWCAs), church, schools, grocery stores, and homeless shelters.

Nurses are uniquely qualified to influence the health and well-being of community members’ health behaviors through original and inventive activities by being an:

Advocate, caregiver, educator, counselor , case manager or consultant


Significance of Health education in the Community

Encourage behavioral changes in the comfort of the individuals environment

Establish trusting relationships with individuals within the community

Deliver health promoting programs that relate economical, political, and epidemiological factors


Learning Theories
Learning theories are helpful in understanding how individuals, families, and groups learn. theories can aid nurses to recognize the mechanisms that potentially modify knowledge, attitude, and behavior 

Humanistic theory helps an individual develop his or her potential in a self-directing and holistic manner.

Cognitive theory recognizes the brain’s ability to think, feel, learn, and solve problems; theorists in this area train the brain to maximize these functions.

Social learning is based on behavior explaining and enhancing learning through the concepts of efficacy, outcome expectation, and incentives.

Adult Learners

Need to know

Concept of self

Readiness to learn

Orientation to learning



– Knowles (1980, 1989)

Copyright © 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.


Health Education Models
Two models that explain why individuals do or do not participate in health actions.
Health promotions model: explains why individuals engage in health actions.
Health belief Model: explains why individuals do not participate in health actions.

Health Promotion Model

Health Belief Model

Importance of health

Perceived susceptibility

Perceived control of health

Perceived severity

Perceived self-efficacy

Perceived benefits

Definition of health

Perceived barriers

Perceived health status


Perceived benefits of health-promoting behaviors 


Cues to action

Perceived barriers to health-promoting behaviors The HBM and HPM can assist community health nurses in examining an individual’s health 9 choices and decisions for influencing health-related behaviors.

Model of Health
Education Empowerment
Empowerment is the total sum of efforts that are defined as
“gaining controls over decision-making at the individual, family, community, and societal levels.”

– Nies and McEwen (2006)


Concepts of Empowerment

concept of empowerment can be traced back to
Paulo Freire
Brazilian educator in the 1950s who sought to promote literacy among the poorest of the poor
He based his work on a problem-solving approach to education, which contrasts with what he called the
“banking education approach,” where teachers give information, which