Chapter 1 2 3 Study Guide Essay

Submitted By nana19941995
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Chapter 1
Definition of psychology
Scientific study of behavior and mental
Types of data collection case study: small number/ in-depth/ result cannot be generalized survey: questionnaire/ wording effect/ random sampling(everyone has an equal chance of participating) naturalistic observation: record behavior in natural environment correlation: relationship b/w things/ help us predict experimentation: looking for cause and effect(IV&DV)
Positive vs. negative correlation positive: direct relationship/increase and decrease together negative: inverse relationship/ one thing increase, the other thing decrease
Pro’s and con’s of each method of data collection
Theory
organizes and predicts behavior explains why a fact exists
Hypothesis
testable prediction
IV/DV
Independent variable: factor manipulate/ manipulate one or more factor
Dependent variable: looking at outcome/ behavior that change due to manipulation/ observe the effect of the manipulation
Contributions of
Wundt: introspection
Freud: level of consciousness
Pavlov: behavior
Watson: behavior

Chapter 2
Phrenology
study of the mind
Gall
specific parts of the brain are responsible for specific behaviors neurons - structure of divisions of the nervous systems brain stem medulla: heart beat/ breathing cerebellum: balance/ coordination/ basic memory reticular formation: attention and arousal limbic system: “border” b/w older and new parts of brain amygdala: fear and aggression hypothalamus: basic motivation/ reward center hippocampus: memory thalamus: sensory switchboard cerebral cortex covers the brains hemispheres think, perceive, speak motor cortex(movement), sensory sortex(touch & movenmrnt sensations), Language lobes - functions of each frontal lobe: planning, judgment, speech, movement parietal lobe: sensation occipital lobe:vision temporal lobe: hearing, ficial expression action potential electrical charge that travels down axon threshold minimum level of stimulation all-or-none response neurons fire or don’t fire neurotransmitters – chemical messenger
GABA: inhibitory neurotransmitter(anxiety, insomnia)
Endorphins: reduce pain
Dopamine: movement, learning, emotion(too much=schizophrenia/little=Parkinson) Serotonin: mod, hunger, sleep(much=GI problems, insomnia/ little=depression) excitatory vs. inhibitory: lock and key reuptake: reabsorbs the extra biological psychologists explore the link b/w biology &behavior types of neurons sensory neuron: brings info in from sense interneurons: brain and spinal cord/ processes info motor neuron: sends info out through muscles and glands specializations of the hemispheres
Left hemisphere: logic/ reason/ language/ literal/ likes other
Right hemispheres: spatial relation/ pick up on subtle things/ sense of self corpus callosum connects the hemisphere/ allows them to communicate synapse, synaptic gap junction where neurons meet aphasia – types, definition

Chapter 3 circadian rhythm pattern of biological activity that repeats itself every 24 hours stages of sleep - brain waves, characteristics of each stage
Stage 0:Alpha waves, awake and relaxed
Stage 1: Theta waves, hallucination, twitching
Stage 2: sleep spindles, rapid burts of brain activity
Stage 3: Delta waves, onset of deep sleep
Stage 4:…