CHAPTER 1. On the Sociology of Deviance, Erikson
The Four Functions of Deviance:
1. Cohesion, Solidarity, & Integration -Behavior that is considered unseemly within the context of a single family may be entirely acceptable to the community in general, while behavior that attracts serve censure from the members of the community may go unnoticed elsewhere in the culture. Collective experience
2. Boundary Maintenance/Definition -given pattern of constancy and stability, within larger environment; confine members in a community to a particular radius of activity and any conduct outside as inappropriate.
3. Social Change -deviant is a person whose activities have moved outside the margins of the group, when the community calls him to account for that it makes a statement about the nature of its boundaries that can bring change.
4. Full Employment -participating in the confrontations which occur when persons who venture out to the edges of the group are met by policing agents whose business is to guard cultural integrity.
Three Ways that Institutions Perpetuate Deviance
1. Gather marginal people into groups - Deviants of similar attitude and being are put into a group with formal ceremonies. Institutions designed to discourage deviant behavior actually aid and shelter large numbers of deviant persons giving them an advantage in the competition for social resources.
2. Teach them the skills and attitudes of a deviant career -check of the public eye is removed and the power of the law is spent. Deviants gain applause from their fellow deviants by imitating their manners and practices.
3. Reinforce alienation from society -difficult to change the worst of the penal practices because we expect the prison to harden the inmate’s commitment to deviant behavior and draw him more deeply into the deviant ranks.
Commitment Ceremonies -move individual out of ordinary society to transfer into a special deviant position. Ther is a formal stage, announcement about the deviant act, and then a role placed on the deviant to neutralize the harmful events. Irreversible
Self-fulfilling Prophesies -People of the community greet the returning deviant with no irreversible ceremonies but with apprehension and distrust. The deviant may begin to respond to the uncertainty by resuming some kind of deviant behavior.
Ch. 2: Heckert and Heckert
An Integrated Typology of Deviance Applied to Ten Middle-Class Norms
~Integrating Normative and Reactivist Definitions of Deviance
4 Types of Deviance
1. Negative Deviance -under conformity or nonconformity that results in negative reactions
2. Rate Busting -over conformity that is negatively evaluated
3. Deviance Admiration -under conformity or nonconformity that is positively appraised by the collectivity
4. Positive Deviance
-over conformity that receives positive reactions
~An Integrated Typology of Deviance Applied to Ten Middle-Class Norms
1. Loyalty -describes the necessity of the group to survive over individual concerns
2. Privacy -indicates that individuals need to be in command of certain spaces and places
3. Prudence -refers to placing pleasure in perspective and to practicing pleasure with moderation
4. Conventionality - is descriptive of the people choosing habits and life scenarios that are similar to those of other people.
5. Responsibility -dependability, especially when others must count on that characteristic
6. Participation -implies personal involvement in both economic and social spheres; alienation constitutes the nonconforming counterpart
7. Moderation - means an avoidance of the extremes in life
8. Honesty -denotes veracity and candor
9. Peacefulness -illustrates a sedate and clam style
10. Courtesy - revolves around refined social etiquette
Each of these types of deviance applied to these 10 norms:
Negative Deviance: under conformity or nonconformity that results in negative reactions