Chapter Outline I. Possible origins of the first Americans A. Siberian B. Southwestern Europe II. Indian culture before Columbus C. Earliest cultures 1. Hunters and gatherers 2. Villagers 3. Farmers D. Mayan, Aztec, and Incan cultures E. Major Indian cultures in the area of the United States after about 1,000 B.C. 4. Adena-Hopewell peoples of the Ohio Valley (800 B.C.–A.600) 5. Mississippian cultures of the Mississippi River Valley (A.600–1500) 6. Pueblo-Hohokam-Anasazi cultures of the Southwest III. European discovery of the New World F. Early Norse contacts G. Changes in modern Europe 7. Revival of learning 8. Progress in navigation 9. Growth of trade and towns 10. New nation-states H. Voyages of Columbus I. Biological exchange 11. Animals 12. Plants 13. Devices 14. Diseases J. Early exploration by England and Portugal 15. John Cabot 16. Ferdinand Magellan IV. Spanish conquest of the New World K. Clash of cultures 17. Indian weaknesses a. susceptible to disease b. disunity c. poor transportation 18. Spanish advantages d. accepted risk e. ships f. better military tools g. horses L. Cortés and other conquistadores 19. Cortés’s conquest of Mexico 20. System of encomienda 21. Roles of church and crown M. Spanish exploration and early settlement in North America 22. Geographic area of control 23. Interactions with Indian culture 24. Purposes of settlements h. obtain wealth i. convert Indians j.