Chapter 10 Joints Arthrology is the science concerned with joints. Joints are classified according to their relative freedom of movement. A diarthrosis is freely movable. An amphiarthrosis is slightly movable. A synarthrosis is immovable. Joints are also classified according to how the adjacent bones are joined. In fibrous joints, collagen fibers cross the gap between two bone matrices and join them. In cartilaginous joints, the two bones are held together by cartilage. In synovial joints, the bones are separated by lubricating synovial fluid. At fibrous joints, fibers of collage join two bones. Sutures are limited to the skull. Serrate sutures form wavy lines. Lap (squamous) sutures occur where two bones have overlapping beveled edges. Plane (butt) sutures occur where two bones have straight, nonoverlapping edges. Where a tooth attaches into its bony socket is a gomphosis. The tooth is held in place by a fibrous periodontal membrane. Syndesmoses are the most movable of the fibrous joints and are joined by an interosseous ligament. Example: tibia and fibula connection at the ankle. In cartilaginous joints, the two bones are joined by cartilage. In a synchondrosis, the bones are joined by hyaline cartilage (such as the attachment of a rib to the sternum). In a symphysis, two bones are joined by a fibrocartilage pad, such as an intervertebral disc. Some fibrous and cartilaginous joints ossify with age. The gap between adjacent bones fills with osseous tissue until the bones become one. This type of joint is a synostosis. The bones of a synovial joint are separated by a joint cavity containing lubricating synovial fluid. The adjoining surfaces of bones are covered with hyaline cartilage, further reducing friction within the joint. A joint capsule encloses the cavity, and is made up of an outer fibrous capsule lined with synovial membrane. Certain joints contain a pad of fibrocartilage called a meniscus that absorbs shock and pressure. Synovial joints are reinforced on the outside by tendons and ligaments, and sometimes inside by ligaments. Fluid-filled bursae underlie certain muscles, helping tendons glide easily over joints. Ball-and-socket joints occur at the shoulder and hip and are highly movable, multiaxial joints. Examples include the shoulder and hip joints. Hinge joints are monaxial, like a door hinge. Examples include the knee, finger and toe joints. Condyloid (ellipsoid) joints exhibit an oval convex surface that fits into a similar depression on the next. The metacarpophalangeal joints are an example. The body's only saddle joint occurs at the base of the thumb. Each bone in the joint is concave in one direction and convex in the other. This joint is the hallmark of primate anatomy: the opposable thumb. In pivot joints, one bone has a knobby projection that fits into the ring-like ligament on the other, such as between the first two vertebrae. In gliding joints, articular surfaces are mostly flat, such as between the carpal or tarsal bones. Flexion is movement that decreases the angle of a joint. Extension straightens the joint. Hyperextension increases the angle beyond 180o. Abduction is movement of a body part away from the midsagittal line. Adduction is movement toward the midsagittal line. Elevation is movement that raises a bone vertically. Depression is the opposite of elevation. Protraction is movement of a bone anteriorly. Retraction is movement posteriorly. Lateral and medial excursion refer to the side-to-side movements associated with mastication. During circumduction, one end of an appendage remains stationary while the other end makes a circular motion. Rotation is a movement in which a bone turns on its longitudinal axis. Supination and pronation are limited to the forearm. Supination is rotating the arm so the palm is upward. Pronation is rotating the arm so the palm is downward. Opposition is movement of the thumb toward the fingers. Reposition is movement back to anatomical position. These
Chapter Review Questions
Questions are at the end of each chapter under the “For Review” heading
intention to make offer, definiteness of terms, communication of offer
Expression of opinion, joke, statement of future intent
When it is so agreed by the parties, when offeree commences performance to his determent before offer is revoked
Voluntary act by offeree (words and/or conduct) shows assent
Leadership of Culture, Ethics, and Diversity
The Power of Culture – An organization determines the way that it responds to changes in its external and internal environment. Organizational performance is enhanced when strategy, structure, and capabilities are aligned to culture. Experts and scholars on organizational culture have long maintained that culture serves two important functions in organizations: (1) it creates internal unity, and (2) it helps the organization adapt to the external…
1. Why have teams become so popular?
a. As organizations have restructured themselves to compete more effectively and efficiently, they have turned to teams as a better way to use employee talents
b. Teams are more flexible and responsive to changing events
c. Teams facilitate employee participation in operating decisions
d. Teams are an effective means for management to democratize organizations and increase employee motivation
2. Differences between groups and teams
a. Group: two or…
Entrepreneurship: Successfully Launching New Ventures, 4e (Barringer/Ireland)
Chapter 10 Getting Financing or Funding
1) inDinero, the company profiled in the opening feature for Chapter 10, is described by its cofounders as "the fastest way for small businesses to manage their finances." Which of the following is not true about inDinero's founding story?
A) In 2009, inDineor's founders applied to TechStars, which is a Boulder, CO-based seed-stage fund/incubator, and were turned down.
1. The specific needs that my agency addresses is the need for quality public education. The agency also addresses the need for community and family connectedness.
2. Within the geographic area served by my community there are twenty two percent of the population that is seventeen years of age or below.
3. The average for Baltimore city is twenty one percent.
4. There is no specific subpopulation that is most likely to experience to experience or need this service. All…
Terms | Definitions |
legitimacy | A characterization of elections by political scientists meaning that they are almost universally accepted as a fair and free method of selecting political leaders. When it is high, as in the United States, even the losers accept the results peacefully. |
referendum | A state-level method of direct legislation that gives voters a chance to approve or disapprove proposed legislation or a proposed constitutional amendment. |
initiative petition | A process permitted…
Berkeley City College
Music 15A Jazz, Blues and Popular Music in America
Chapter 10: Cool Jazz
1. The Style of Cool
a. A style that developed in the late 1940’s and into the 1950’s was cool jazz. Cool jazz in contrast to bebop is
generally softer in timbre, less angular in melody, less busy, avoids roughness or “brassiness,” relies more
heavily on sophisticated chord arrangements, and often uses softer toned instruments like the flugelhorn,
French horn and tuba.
b. Cool was the most significant…
Chapter 10: The Judiciary
Roots of the Federal Judiciary
The detailed notes James Madison took at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia make it clear that the Framers devoted little time to writing Article III, which created the judicial branch of government.
The Framers believed that a federal judiciary posed little threat of tyranny.
One scholar has even suggested that, for at least some delegates to the Constitutional Convention, “provision for a national judiciary was a matter of theoretical…
Chapter 10 Outline
1. Define PrayerAll Saints” the living relationship with children to god” SAINTSSt.
John the raising of one mind and heart to god”. St. Augustineprayer is nothing but
loving god”. St. Therese”surge to the heart”. St. Clement”conversation with god”
2. Benefits of prayerPrayer contributes to our sense of self worth. Leads to happiness
helping us discover. changes us by making us more loving. just like water helps us
grow prayer helps us too. energizes calms and renews…