Chapter 10 Guided Reading Essay

Words: 1037
Pages: 5

Mahayana Buddhism: “Great Vehicle”, won widespread Chinese conversions because it provided refuge from an age of war and turmoil. - Focused on reverence for Buddha and for bodhisattvas- enlightened person who had postponed nirvana to help others attain enlightenment.
Bubonic Plague: “The Black Death”- a disease that spread in this time period due to the movements missionaries, nomads, traders, increasing interaction and through sea trade routes.
Junks: A very large flat bottom selling ship produced in the Tang, Song and Ming Empires, specially designed for long-distance commercial travel. The best ship in the world at that time. Used for trade in the overseas.
Chan (Zen) Buddhism: Elite educated classes, Stress on meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty. The goal: know ultimate wisdom and then one finds release from the cycle of rebirth.
Neo-Confucianism: Stress the importance of applying the revived Confucian philosophical principles to everyday life and action. Goal: Cultivating personal morality. Great impact on the Chinese Life. Resulted in Hostility to foreign philosophical or religious systems- led to isolation. Also the emphasis on tradition- stifled innovation and critical thinking; best solutions from the past. Reinforced class, age, and gender distinctions.
Examination system: civil service recruitment method and educational system by which talented people were recognized and selected for future positions in civil service.
Shamanism: The practice of identifying special individuals who will interact with spirits for the benefit of the community. Characteristics of the Korean kingdoms of the early medieval period and of early societies of Central Asia.
Shinto: is the indigenous religion of Japan and the people of Japan. Focused on ritual practices to be carried out diligently. Japan’s traditional religion.
Champa Rice: Quick maturing rice that can allow two harvests in one growing season. Originally introduced into Champa from India. It was later sent to China as a tribute gift by the Champa state.
Grand Canal: The 1,100 mile waterway linking the Yellow and the Yangzi Rivers. It was begun in the Han period and completed during the Sui Empire.
Sui Empire: 589-618C.E. Wendi seized the throne of his son-in-law in 589 CE. Yangdi- son of Wendi murdered his father to reach the throne. The Sui Empire reunified China and established a government based on Confucianism but heavily influenced by Buddhism. The Sui’s rapid decline and fall may have been due to its having spent large amounts of resources on a number of ambitious construction, canal, irrigation, and military projects.
Tang Empire: 618-960 C.E: unified China and part of Central Asia. Capital Chang’an. The Tang Emperors presided over a magnificent court at Chang’an. The Tang emperors and nobility descended from the Tang Elites. Li Yuan and his Son. Empress Wu and Buddhism. The Tang state carried out a program of territorial expansion, avoided over-centralization, and combined Turkic influence with Chinese Confucian traditions.
Song Empire: 960-1126: In Central and Southern China when Liao controlled the north. In Southern China when Jin people controlled the north. Advances in technology, medicine, astronomy, and mathematics.
Outline the characteristics of the Tang Trade and integration.
Tang China combined Central Asian influences with Chinese culture, bringing polo, grape wine, tea, and spices. In trade, China lost its monopoly on silk, but began to produce its own cotton, tea, and sugar.
Tang roads, river transport, and canals facilitated a tremendous growth in trade. Tang China exported far more than it imported, with high quality silks and porcelain being among its most desired products.
Outline the Tang repression of Buddhism.
In the late ninth century the Tang Empire broke the power of the Buddhist monasteries and Confucian ideology was reasserted. The reason for the crackdown was that Buddhism was seen as