1. What defines the postclassical period in Western Europe?
The postclassical period in Western Europe is the time period between the fall of the Roman Empire (around 476 C.E.) and the beginning of the Renaissance (approx. 1450 c.e.)
2. What were the signs of vitality in Western Europe?
Population growth, economic productivity, increased political complexity, technological innovation, and artistic and intellectual complexity are all seen as signs of Western Europe vitality. In addition, the establishment of Colleges and Universities as well as a defining political and social structure influenced Western Europe for centuries to come.
3. What developments in the 9th and 10th centuries pointed the way to political and economic recovery?
With new agricultural techniques (3 field system in particular) helping increase production thus stimulating the economic recovery. With the advent of feudalism, in particular the granting of Normandy to the Vikings, Viking raids diminished allowing for economic and political stability. The emergence of towns Expanding towns emerged as regional trade centers with a merchant class and craft production. With a larger demand base than workforce allowed for slightly better conditions for serfs. Universities emerged as well allowing students to study medicine, theology and law.
4. What were the signs of economic prosperity after 1000?
The introduction of banking by the Italians was one of the biggest signs of economic prosperity (the church relaxed rules regarding ossuary paving the way for Christians to enter and dominate the banking business.) Hanseatic League was established to encourage commerce. Governments did not interfere in commerce allowing it to flourish.
Short Answer Review
1. The term Indian was a misnomer created by Columbus for Native Americans when he thought he had reached the Indies.
2. The Mexica or Aztecs penetrated into the sedentary agricultural zone of Mexico after Toltec collapse and established an empire circa 1325.
3. Founded circa 1325 on a marshy island in Lake Texcoco, Tenochtitlan became the center of Aztec power.
4. Flowery Death or death while taking prisoners for sacrifice was thought by the Aztecs to be a fitting end to a noble life and an assurance of eternity in the highest heaven.
5. Anthropologist Marvin Harris’s controversial name for the Aztec empire is the Cannibal Kingdom.
6. The group of clans centered at Cuzco that was able to create an empire in Andean civilization circa 1438 was the Incas.
7. The Inca practice of descent, Split Inheritance granted all titles and political power to the ruler’s successor, but wealth and land remained in the hands of male descendants for support of the cult of the dead Inca's mummy.
8. It is estimated that in 1492 the total human population of the western hemisphere was approximately 67.3 million.
9. The Yanas were a class of people removed from their ayllus to serve permanently as servants, artisans, or workers for the Inca and his family.
10. The system of knotted strings utilized…