Question for review
1). As a process, leadership is the use of non-coercive influence to shape the group’s or organization’s goals, motivate behavior toward the achievement of those goals, and help define group or organization culture. Leadership as a property is a set of characteristics attributed to individuals who are perceived to be leaders
2). Leadership and Management
Leadership and management are related but different. For example, the management side of executing plans focuses on monitoring results, comparing them with goals, and correcting deviations. In contrast, the leadership side of the same activity focuses on energizing people to overcome bureaucratic hurdles to help reach goals.
Organizations need both good managers and good leaders if they are to be effective.
Leadership and Power
Power is the ability to affect the behavior of others. Power arises from five bases.
Legitimate power is granted through the organizational hierarchy.
Reward power is the power to give or withhold rewards.
Coercive power forces compliance by means of psychological, emotional, or physical threats.
Referent power is based on identification, imitation, loyalty, or charisma. Followers react favorably to the leader because of who he or she is.
Expert power is derived from information or expertise
3). The Michigan studies (conducted by Likert) identified job-centered leader behavior as the behavior of leaders who pay close attention to the job and work procedures involved with that job and employee-centered leader behavior as the behavior of leaders who develop cohesive work groups and ensure employee satisfaction.
These behaviors were thought to be at opposite ends of one continuum with employee-centered leaders being the more effective. 4). The Ohio State studies also found two basic leader styles: initiating-structure behavior and consideration behavior. A leader who initiates structure clearly defines the leader-subordinate role so that everyone knows what is expected. A leader who uses consideration behavior shows concern for subordinates and attempts to establish a friendly and supportive climate. Unlike the Michigan studies, these two styles were on separate continuums. 5). The Managerial Grid is also based on two forms of leader behavior: concern for people and concern for production. By combining these two forms of behavior, managers can analyze leader behavior in organizations.
Questions for analysis
1). Positive reinforcement strengthens desired behavior by giving a reward after the behavior is performed. Praise, promotion, and pay increases are all examples of positive reinforcement.
2). Avoidance strengthens the desired behavior by allowing the employee to avoid a negative consequence if a certain behavior is exhibited. Avoidance occurs, for