Q1. Define the “transfer of motor learning.”
Transfer of learning is the process by which learning a movement skill under one set of conditions influences the performance of a subsequent movement skill under the same or different conditions.
Q2. The direction of transfer from one task to another can be positive transfer when the training task enhances performance of the transfer task, negative transfer when the training task interferes with performance of the transfer task, and zero/neutral transfer when the training task has no effect on the transfer task.
Q3. How does the identical elements theory of transfer differ from the transfer-appropriate processing view in explaining why transfer of learning occurs? The identical elements theory proposes that transfer depends on the extent to which the training and transfer tasks share identical elements whereas the transfer-appropriate processing (TAP) framework posits that transfer is not merely a function of the similarity between the training and transfer tasks and conditions, but also the similarity of the task goals and cognitive processing between them that determines the transfer of movement learning.
Q4. Describe THREE factors that have been shown to affect the direction, amount, and/or extent of transfer.
1. Level of Original Learning – increasing the amount of quality practice can increase the level of original learning that is likely to enhance long-term retention and transfer of that performance to real-world settings. It is important, however, that structurally similar responses are required in acquisition and transfer tasks. Manipulating other variables (e.g., Varying the practice environment, introducing higher levels of contextual interference, reducing the frequency of augmented feedback) that can assist learners achieve a higher or more complete level of original leaning of the task may result in enhance long-term retention and transfer.
2. Background knowledge or expertise of learner – the extent of a learner’s background knowledge within a given domain such as movement skills and his/her level of expertise can influence how much information is transferred from one movement context to another or from the learning of one skill to the learning of a second movement skill.
3. Perceived Similarity – the greater the perceived similarity between acquisition/training and transfer settings, the greater the amount of transfer. In fact, whether the transfer of training-task learning is even attempted depends on the extent to which the two settings are perceived as similar. Perceived similarity can based on any salient shared structural (i.e., components of a setting that are causally or functionally related to achieving the performance goal – learning the various game situations in which a bounce pass is needed in basketball or netball) or surface (i.e., components of a setting that are not necessarily causally or functionally related to achieving the performance goal – height of the basket, dimensions of the court, size of the ball) components.
Q5. Describe the TWO General Factors that have been shown to transfer from training to transfer settings.
1. Transfer of principles – knowledge of