Selective breeding: allowing only those animals with desired characteristics to produce the next generation
Hybridiztion: crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best of both organisms
Inbreeding: continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics
Genetic Engineering: making changes in the DNA code of a living organism
Restriction Enzymes: cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides
Gel Electrophoresis: mixture of DNA fragments is placed at one end of a porous gel and an electric voltage is sent.
Recombinant DNA: combining DNA from different sources
Plymerase Chain Reaction: technique that allows molecular biologists make copies of a specific gene
Plasmid: small circular piece of DNA
Genetic Marker: gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carries the plasmid and the foreign DNA from those that don’t
Transgenic: contains genes from other species
Clone: member of a population of genetically identical cells produced from a single cell
Section Assessment 13-1
1. Nearly all domestic animals, including horses, cats, and farm animals, and most crop plants have been produced by selective breeding.
2. Mutations are the ultimate source of genetic variation.
3. By using radiation and chemicals
4. The condition of having many sets of chromosomes
5. Plants with shorter stems and plants with more red pigments in their flowers
Section Assessment 13-2
1. Biologists use various tools to extract, read, edit, and reinsert DNA into living organisms including DNA extraction, restriction enzymes, gel electrophoresis, sequencing DNA and PCR
2. To study specific genes; compare them with the genes of other organisms; and discover the functions of different genes
3. A mixture of DNA fragments in a porous gel are separated by their sizes with electric voltage.
4. PCR; short pieces of complementary DNA are added to each end of a DNA sequence. DNA is heated, then cooled, and DNA polymerase makes copies of the sequence.
5. Both rely on a cod that can be manipulated to change the function of the system.
Chapter 13 Review
1. Allowing only those organisms with desired characteristics to produce their offspring.
2. B. dogs
3. He is the greatest selective breeder of all time and was born on 1849 and died on 1926.
4. Type: Hybridization Example: crossing to produce resistance of some disease
Type: Inbreeding Example: maintain characteristics.
6. A. Hybridization. B. Inbreeding
9. Chance that a cross between two individuals will bring together two recessive alleles of a specific trait.
10. Selective breeding would be nearly impossible without the wide variation that is found in natural population.
13. C. mutation
15. A. Radiation B. Chemical
16. Needs luck breeders can produce few mutants. Individually with mutations with desirable characteristics.
17. Can increase mutation rate.
20. A. polyploidy plants have many sets of chromosomes
B. Polyploidy is usually fatal in animals
C. Banana and some citrus fruits are polyploidy
1. Making changes in the DNA code of a living organism
3. Structure; Chemical
4. Extract DNA; Cut into small pieces; Identify sequence of bases in a DNA molecule; Make copies
5. They do a procedure known as gel electrophoresis which separates and analyzes DNA fragments
6. Restriction enzymes
7. A. gel