Principles of Disease and Epidemiology
Write the definitions for the following using your Microbiology text.
1. Microorganisms that establish more of less permanent residence (colonize) but that do not produce disease under normal conditions are members of the body’s Normal flora, Transient flora may be present for several days, weeks, or months and then disappear without causing a disease, & microorganisms that do not ordinarily cause a disease in their normal habitat but can become pathogenic under certain circumstances are Opportunistic organisms 2. Signs are changes due to a disease that a person can observe and measure, every disease that affects the body alters body structures and functions in particular ways, that is felt by the individual is a Symptoms, Syndrome is a specific group of sign or symptoms that accompany a disease. 3. A disease constantly present in a population is called an Endemic disease, if many people in a given are a acquire a certain disease in a relatively short period is called an epidemic disease, and when that disease occurs worldwide it is called a pandemic, A disease that only occurs occasionally in a population called sporadic disease 4. Infection is the invasion or colonization of the body by a pathogenic microorganism, Disease occur4s when any infection result in any change from a state of health, Etiology is the study of the cause of a disease 5. Morbidity the incident of a specific notifiable disease, Mortality is the number of deaths from a specific notifiable disease, MMWR is Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report a publication that contains data on morbidity and mortality 6. Any disease that spreads from one host to another, either directly or indirectly, is said to be Communicable disease, Noncommunicable disease is not spread from one host to another, Predisposing disease factors makes the body more susceptible to a disease and may alter the course of the disease 7. Acute disease is one that develops rapidly but lasts only a short time, Chronic disease develops more slowly, and the bo0dy’s reactions may be less severe, but the disease is likely to continue or recur for long periods, a disease that is intermediate between acute and chronic is described as a Subacute disease, Latent disease is one in which the causative agent remains inactive for a time but then becomes active to produce symptoms of the disease 8. Living reservoir is the human body itself, many people harbor pathogens and transmit them directly or indirectly to others, nonliving reservoir are soil, water, and include foods that are improperly prepared or stored, Zoonosis(zoo-NO-sis) disease that occur primarily in wild and domestic animals and can be transmitted to humans are called 9. Local infection is one in which the invading microorganisms are limited to a relatively small area of the body, secondary infection is one caused by an opportunistic pathogen after the primary infection has weakened the body’s defenses, systemic infection microorganisms or their products are spread throughout the body by the blood or lymph, subclinical infection is one that does not cause any noticeable illness
10. Disease transmission is the causative agents of disease can be transmitted from the reservoir of infection to a susceptible host, direct known as person-to-person transmission, is the direct transmission of an agent by physical contact between its source and a susceptible host and indirect occurs when the agent of disease is transmitted from its reservoir to a susceptible host by means of a nonliving object, and any nonliving object involved in the spread of an infection is fomites
11. Portals of entry the avenue by which a pathogen gains access to the body, portals of exit the route by which a pathogen leaves the body