Essay on Chapter 16 Transformation of the West 1

Submitted By Kiara-Belikov
Words: 1167
Pages: 5



CHAPTER 16:
TRANSFORMATION OF
THE WEST


That “other” Renaissance




Italy begins to decline as a Renaissance “center” around
1500
The Northern Renaissance: focused in France,
Germany, & England after 1450
Northern Renaissance focused on religion more than
Italian Renaissance; but still mainly involved in culture,
architecture, and the arts

Power Politics





Interest in military conquest grew throughout Europe.
Decline in “feudal” alliances
Monarchy’s grow stronger; kings push for expansion
Alliances made, but “just for looks”
 Example: Francis I (king of France) forms alliance with Ottoman

Turk leader. But his main goal is to have this alliance act as a
distraction towards his real target – the ruler of Austria & Spain.

“Down like the Economy” – Lil Wayne

ECONOMY & TECHNOLOGY:
 Stronger iron products in the West (Europe)
 Increased trading contacts w/ Asia
 Printing introduced in 15 th century; Johannes Gutenberg (no
relation)


 Gutenberg (still no relation) improved the printing technology previously

developed by the Chinese
 This leads to increase in book distribution – helps Renaissance writers
reach a larger audience; also leads to increase in literacy rates

“We are Family!... Get up
everybody and SING!” (but
seriously…DON’T!)


New Family Structure:
 Later marriages – usually not until late-20’s
 Family was focused on the “nuclear” family and not the extended family

living together
○ Nuclear family – yo mama, yo daddy, yo seesters, yo bruthas
○ Extended family – all of the above PLUS: yo aunties, yo uncles, yo grandparents,

yo cousins.







These changes to family structure started occurring in the 16 th
century
Linked family’s with property; most people could NOT marry
unless they had property or access to property
Late marriages also limited overcrowding because families had
fewer children! (like an old school birth control method! – Nueces
County needs this…like now!!!)
GOT IT?! Good!

The Protestant & Catholic
Reformations


During the 16th century religious upheaval
began to occur in Europe



Religious Upheaval! Ahhhh! >:0

The original Martin Luther (no not
King Jr.)


Martin Luther         
German monk
In 1517, he nailed a document to the door of a castle

church in Germany
○ The document had his 95 theses (propositions)

BIG idea – he protested against the pope’s

representatives for selling indulgences (grants for
salvation) in exchange for money. Luther believed that
only faith could grant salvation.
○ Luther also argued that priests should be allowed to marry and

that the bible should be translated from Latin so others could
read/understand it.

Luther picks up support from followers during the mid-

16th century

Other Christian Groups


England:
 King Henry VIII – set up the Anglican Church to challenge the

pope’s attempt to enforce his first marriage (failed to “produce” a
son/heir)
○ Side-Story: Henry VIII had 6 wives (possibly more); he executed 2 of

them for not “producing” a son/heir…well allegedly executed them



France/Germany/Others
 Jean Calvin – Frenchman; “Calvinism” claims that God had a pre-

destination or pre-determination of those who would be granted
salvation
○ Calvinism was accepted in parts of Switzerland, Germany, France,

Netherlands, Hungary, and in England & Scotland

“We will not go quietly into the
night” – President Whitmore,
‘Independence Day’  SWEET movie



Catholic Church did NOT restore religious unity, but did
defend key areas of Europe for the Catholic faith.
Under a Catholic Reformation church councils revived
Catholic doctrine and refuted any Protestant ideas
(Protestant = a sect w/in Christianity)

End of Christian Unity in the West


Protestant & Catholic reformations had several results
during late 16th & 17th centuries:
 Religious Wars:
○ France was the scene of battles between Calvinist & Catholic forces;
○ The Edict of Nantes (1598) ended this struggle
 Thirty Years War (1618-1648):