Section 1 Cold War: Superpowers Face off
W- Who was involved in the Cold War? What effects did the Cold War have on the countries involved? What was the outcome of the war? What was the reason for the war?
After WWII, two powers remained:
Leaders of U.S., Britain, and Soviet Union
Agreed to divide Germany into zones
Creation of the United Nations
June 1945, based in New York
48 Nations joined the organization intended to protect members against aggression
11-member body called the Security Council had power to investigate disputes
Aims of the United States
Encourage democracy in other countries to help prevent rise of Communism
Gain access to raw materials and market to fuel booming industries
Rebuild European governments to promote stability and create markets
Reunite Germany to stabilize it and increase security in Europe
Encourage Communism in other countries as part of a worldwide workers’ revolution
Rebuild its war-ravaged economy using Eastern Europe’s industry
Control Eastern Europe to protect Soviet borders and balance U.S. influence in the West
Keep Germany divided to prevent its wagering war again
Division of Europe between east and west
Soviet’s “Buffer Zone” to protect borders
The actions taken may affect my country by costing it money, time, resources, and people’s lives. It will also affect the other superpower the same ways if these actions are taken.
Being in the struggle between superpowers may affect a developing nation by disrupting their government or having their food supply lost.
Section 1 Terms
1. United Nations- An international organization that was intended to protect the members against aggression. It was to be based in New York. Made up of United States, Soviet Union, and 48 other countries.
Iron Curtain- Winston Churchill’s phrase to represent Europe’s division into mostly democratic Western Europe and Communist Eastern Europe.
Containment- A foreign policy adopted by President Truman that directed at blocking Soviet influence and stopping the expansion of communism. Policies included forming alliances and helping weak countries resist Soviet advances.
Truman Doctrine- Truman’s support for countries that rejected communism and caused great controversy.
Marshall Plan- An assistance program that provided food, machinery, and other materials to rebuild western Europe. The plan was a spectacular success.
Cold War- War between the United States and the Soviet Union over political differences carried on by means short of military action or war.
NATO- Western Europe nations joined the United States and Canada to form a defensive military alliance.
Warsaw Pact- An alliance between the Soviet Union, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Albania. The Soviet Union saw NATO as a threat, so they created the Warsaw Pact.
Brinkmanship- The willingness to go to the brink, or edge, of war. This caused the United States to strengthen its air force and began producing nuclear weapons. This also caused the Soviet Union to buildup its military.
2. The threat of nuclear war was the most significant effect of the Cold War because of the danger of bombs and how deadly they could be. Also, the United States and the Soviet Union each threatened to use atomic bombs. This led to each country wanting a stronger army as well. s
3. The purpose of the United Nations was to protect the members against aggression.
4. The goal of the Marshall Plan was to provide food, machinery, and other materials