1. Industrial Revolution: Began in Britain after 1750 and triggered an enormous leap in industrial production and spread all over the world over decades. Switched Europe from an economy based on agriculture to one based on manufacturing.
2. Coal and Steam: replaced wind and water as new sources of energy and power to drive labor saving machines.
3. Flying shuttle, spinning jerry, and power loom: The flying shuttle made weaving on a loom faster and enabled weaves to double their output. The spinning jerry allowed spinners to produce yarn in greater quantities. The loom, powered by water allowed the weaving of cloth to catch up with the spinning of yarn.
4. James Watt and steam power: In the 1960s, the Scottish engineer built an engine powered by steam that could pump water from mines three times as quickly as previous engines. In 1782, he developed a rotary engine that could turn a shaft and thus drive machinery. Steam power was applied to the textile industry
5. Henry Cort and puddling: Cort developed a system in which coke (derived from coal) was used to burn away impurities in crude iron and produce an iron of high quality a boom in the British iron industry.
6. George Stephenson’s Rocket: a locomotive used on the first public railway line (opened in 1830) in England, which went up to 16 mph.
7. Factories: created a new labor system using machines and workers were obliged to work regular hours and shifts to keep machines producing at a steady rate. large masses of unskilled labor.
8. Continental Industrialization: In 1815, Belgium, France and German states were still largely agrarian. Had trouble industrializing as fast as Britain, but borrowed British techniques and practices to gradually achieve technological independence. Governments played a significant role in the continental industrialization. The continent has a joint-stock investment bank, which pooled the savings of thousands of small and large investors, creating a supply of capital that could be used in industry.
9. Industrial middle class/ bourgeois: applied to people involved in commerce, industry and banking as well as professions such as teachers, physicians and government officials, regardless of where they lived. Factory owners who were ambitious, resourceful and greedy.
10. Industrial working class: faced poor working conditions. Shifts ranged from 12-16 hours a day, six days a week. There was no security of employment or minimum wage. Both women and children worked in factories and mines.
11. Proletariat: the industrial working class established during the industrial revolution.
12. Factory Act of 1833: decreased the number of children employed and the use of child labor; women took their places.
13. Congress of Vienna: Great Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia met to restore much of the old order after Napoleon was defeated in September 1814. The countries sought to arrange a final peace settlement.
14. Klemens von Metternich: Austrian foreign minister and Prince who led the Congress of Vienna
15. “Principle of legitimacy”: claimed by von Metternich, who wanted to reestablish peace and stability in Europe by restoring the legitimate monarchs who would preserve traditional institutions.
16. Conservatism: the conservative reaction to the liberal and nationalist forces unleashed by the French Revolution. Most conservatives favored obedience to political authority, organized religion and hated social upheavals.
17. Concert of Europe and intervention: Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, Austria (and later France) agreed to meet periodically in conferences to take steps that would maintain peace in Europe. The powers adopted the principle of intervention, asserting the right to send armies into countries where there were revolutions to restore legitimate monarchs to their thrones.
18. Liberalism and limited government: liberalism derived from the