# Chapter 2 Essay

Words: 2494
Pages: 10

N. Gregory Mankiw
PowerPoint® Slides by Ron Cronovich
CHAPTER

2

The Science of
Macroeconomics

SEVENTH EDITION

MACROECONOMICS

In this chapter, you will learn:
…the meaning and measurement of the most important macroeconomic statistics:

 Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
 The Consumer Price Index (CPI)
 The unemployment rate

CHAPTER 2

The Data of Macroeconomics

2

Gross Domestic Product:
Expenditure and Income
Two definitions:

 Total expenditure on domestically-produced final goods and services.

 Total income earned by domestically-located factors of production.

Expenditure
Expenditure equals equals income income because because every every dollar dollar spent spent by by aa buyer buyer becomes becomes income income to to the the seller. seller. CHAPTER 2

The Data of Macroeconomics

3

The Circular Flow
Income (\$)
Labor

Firms

Households

Goods
Expenditure
(\$)
CHAPTER 2

The Data of Macroeconomics

4

The value of output minus the value of the intermediate goods used to produce that output

CHAPTER 2

The Data of Macroeconomics

5

NOW YOU TRY:

 A farmer grows a bushel of wheat and sells it to a miller for \$1.00.

 The miller turns the wheat into flour and sells it to a baker for \$3.00.

 The baker uses the flour to make a loaf of bread and sells it to an engineer for \$6.00.

 The engineer eats the bread.
Compute value added at each stage of production and GDP
CHAPTER 2

The Data of Macroeconomics

6

Final goods, value added, and GDP
 GDP

= value of final goods produced
= sum of value added at all stages production. of

 The value of the final goods already includes the value of the intermediate goods, so including intermediate and final goods in GDP would be double-counting.

CHAPTER 2

The Data of Macroeconomics

7

The expenditure components of
GDP
 consumption, C
 investment, I
 government spending, G
 net exports, NX
An important identity:
Y

=

value of total output
CHAPTER 2

C

+

I

+

G

+

NX

aggregate expenditure The Data of Macroeconomics

8

Consumption (C) definition: The value of all goods and services bought by households. Includes:

 durable goods

CHAPTER 2

The Data of Macroeconomics

last a long time
e.g., cars, home appliances nondurable goods last a short time
e.g., food, clothing services work done for consumers e.g., dry cleaning, air travel
9

U.S. consumption, 2008
\$ billions
Consumption

CHAPTER 2

\$ 10,057.9

% of GDP
70.5%

Durables

1,023.2

7.2

Nondurables

2,965.1

20.8

Services

6,069.6

42.6

The Data of Macroeconomics

10

Investment (I)
 Spending on goods bought for future use
(i.e., capital goods)

 Includes:
Spending on plant and equipment
 Residential fixed investment
Spending by consumers and landlords on housing units
 Inventory investment
The change in the value of all firms’ inventories
CHAPTER 2

The Data of Macroeconomics

11

U.S. Investment, 2008
\$ billions
Investment

CHAPTER 2

\$1,993.5

% of GDP
14.0%

1,552.8

10.9

Residential

487.7

3.4

Inventory

–47.0

–0.3

The Data of Macroeconomics

12

Investment vs. Capital
Note: Investment is spending on new capital.
Example (assumes no depreciation):
 1/1/2009: economy has \$500b worth of capital
 during 2009: investment = \$60b
 1/1/2010: economy will have \$560b worth of capital

CHAPTER 2

The Data of Macroeconomics

13

Stocks vs. Flows
Flow

Stock

A stock is a quantity measured at a point in time.
E.g.,
“The U.S. capital stock was \$26 trillion on
January 1, 2009.”
A flow is a quantity measured per unit of time.
E.g., “U.S. investment was \$2.5 trillion during 2009.”
CHAPTER 2

The Data of Macroeconomics

14

Stocks vs. Flows - examples

CHAPTER 2

stock

flow

a person’s wealth

a person’s annual saving

# of people with college degrees

# of new college graduates this year

the govt debt

the govt budget deficit

The Data of