1. Explain what is meant by multidisciplinary science.
A multidisciplinary approach involves drawing appropriately from multiple disciplines to redefine problems outside of normal boundaries and reach solutions based on a new understanding of complex situations.
2. Define matter, elements, and compound [2.3], and identify the main elements of life and define trace elements identifying the main trace elements necessary for life [table 2.1].
Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. Elements are any substance that cannot be broken down to any other substance by chemical reactions. Compound is a substance consisting of two or more different elements combined in a fixed ratio. The four main elements that make up 96% of living matter are Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen. Trace elements are required by an organism in only minute quantities. Some trace elements such as iron are needed by all forms of life.
In section 2.2, students will be able to:
3. Define and describe an atom, identify and know the charges of the subatomic particles, know which particle defines the atom, and know which make up the nucleus and give the atom mass and which particle forms the cloud around the nucleus. [2.5]
An atom is the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element. The subatomic particles of an atom are neutrons, protons, and electrons. Each proton has one unit of positive charge, and each electro has one unit of negative charge. A neutron has no charge. Protons and neutrons are packed together tightly in a dense core called an atomic nucleus at the center of an atom. Protons give the nucleus a positive charge. The rapidly moving electrons form a “cloud” of negative charge around the nucleus. Atomic number equals number of protons and number of electrons in a neutral atom. Mass number is the number of protons plus neutrons.
4. Distinguish between the atomic number, the mass number, and the atomic mass, and describe isotopes being able to calculate the number of protons and/or neutrons given a specific isotope.
Atomic number equals number of protons and number of electrons in a neutral atom. Mass number is the number of protons plus neutrons. Atomic mass is the total mass of an atom. An isotope is one of several atomic forms of an element, each with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons, thus differing in atomic mass.
5. Define energy, potential energy, and electron shell.
Energy is the capacity to cause change, especially to do work. Potential energy is the energy that matter possess as a result of its location or spatial arrangement. An electron shell is an energy level of electrons at a characteristic average distance from the nucleus of an atom.
6. Describe what define the chemical behavior of an atom, define and understand what valence electrons are, valence shell, and inert are, describe the octet rule, and define electron orbitals.
The chemical behavior of an atoms determined by the distribution of electrons in the atom’s electron shells. Valence electrons are the electrons in the outermost electron shell. A valence shell is the outermost energy shell of an atom, containing the valence electrons involved in the chemical reactions of that atom.
7. Describe what leads to the formation of chemical bonds, fully describe the properties of covalent bonds being sure to include terms like molecules, single-bond/double bond, understand how to write the structural formula and molecular formula, describe electronegativity and know how this property relates to bonding, and define nonpolar versus polar covalent bond (IMPORTANT OBJECTIVE)[2.9 and 2.10].
A chemical bond is an attraction between atoms that allows the formation of chemical substances that contain two or more atoms. The bond is caused by the electrostatic force of attraction between opposite charges, either between electrons and nuclei, or as the result of a