Chapter 2 Study Guide Essay

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Chapter 2-3 study Guide
Vocab

Moluccas
A group of islands in eastern Indonesia; was the center of spice trade during the 1500’s and 1600’s
Cartographer
Mapmaker
Circumnavigate
To completely travel around the world
Monopoly
Where a country, company, person, etc. has absolute control over an aspect in business because they have eliminated all competition
Caravel
A new type of sailing ship that allowed sailing on the ocean to be easier
Astrolabe
An instrument that measures latitude
Navigator
A person who helps determine the direction that you are supposed to travel
Scurvy
A disease from lack of vitamin C
Conquistador
Spanish word for conqueror
Alliance
A partnership where you have 2 sides that agree to do something to help each other
Ransom
Payment you are expected to pay for one who has been kidnapped release
Viceroy
A person who ruled in the colonies for the king. Priests were almost as important.
Governor
King's representation in America from Britain
Plantations
Huge farming estates that were plentiful in the colonies
Ecomiendas
A practice used by the Spanish that because of who they were, they thought they had the God given right to demand labor from natives
Immunity
Resistance to a disease
Tenochtitlan
The capital of the Aztec empire
Montezuma
Emperor of the Incas
Civil War
A fight between groups in the same nation
Peon
A native American laborer
New France
A name that the French gave to present day Canada
Compact
An agreement amongst people
Pilgrims
English protestants who rejected the Church of England
Triangular Trade
Linked Europe, Africa, & the Americas
Mercantilism
An economic policy aimed at strengthening national economies
Capitalism
The investment of money to make a profit
Inflation
A rise in prices and a larger supply of money
Entrepreneur
Someone who takes a financial risk to make a profit
Missionary
A person who wants to convert others to a religion
Sepoys
Armies of Indian soldiers
Outpost
A small military camp far away from the main military force
Peninsulares
Spanish born class, highest ranking people of the Spanish colony such as Viceroys and priests
Creoles
American born descendants of Spanish settlers that owned plantations and controlled mines. Main difference from peninsulares- not born in Spain
Mestizos
Lower class in the Spanish colony; Mixing of Europeans and Natives
Mulattos
Mixing of Africans & Europeans
Encomienda
Spanish feeling that they had the right to use slaves

People

Prince Henry
Prince Henry led the way is sponsoring exploration for Portugal, a small nation next to Spain. First, Henry’s navigators discovered and claimed the Madeira and Azores islands to the southwest of Portugal. Henry saw great promise in Africa. The Portuguese could convert Africans to Christianity. He gathered cartographers to map a new route around Africa to Asia.
Vasco de Gama
He was the nest big explorer after the death of Henry. Gama lead four ships around the Cape of South Africa, but kept going. He reached the spice port of Calicut on the coast of west India. Many men died on the voyage back. In 1502, he forced a treaty with the ruler of Calicut. Gama left Portuguese merchants at Calicut to buy spices when prices were low, store them, and give them to the next Portuguese ship and make a profit.
Bartholomew Dias
He was the first explorer to reach the tip of Africa.
Christopher Colombus
Italian, but he sailed for Spain; Got financial backup from the King & Queen of Spain; he was first to discover the "New World" and believed that he could sail around the world and reach India, so he went west.
Amerigo Vespucci
Set out to follow the route taken by Columbus to determine the size of the territory. He believed that there was 2 continents discovered, not one.…