Chapter 22 Essay

Submitted By priscillaromero
Words: 911
Pages: 4

Priscilla Romero
Period 1

Taking the Panama Canal

1. Philander Knox in 1906 stated "because of the Monroe Doctrine, the US is held responsible for the order of Central America which explains the closeness of the canal
2. Panama canal became cornerstone of US policy
3. Three problems had to be solved to dig an inter-oceanic connection
4. An 1850 treaty bound the US to build a canal jointly with Great Britain
5. A problem resolved in 1901 when the British canceled the treaty
6. Canceled in exchange for an American guarantee that the canal would be open to all nations
7. A second problem was where to dig it
8. American engineers rejected a long route and favored a short more rugged route, where the French had already begun work
9. The third problem was that Panama was a province of Columbia
10. Columbia rejected the US terms
11. 1903, Panama declared their independence and a revolution took place
12. America took the side of Panama and protected them and the canal from Columbia
13. November 6, US recognized Panama's independence
14. Weeks later, a treaty was signed establishing the American right to build a canal
15. Agreed to "titular sovereignty"

Policing the Caribbean

1. 1901, the Monroe Doctrine was regarded by Roosevelt as the equivalent to an open door in South America
2. This meant all nations had equal commercial rights in the Western Hemisphere south of the Rio Grande
3. US started getting dominance over the Caribbean basin
4. This was shown when there was a disagreement between Great Britain and Germany
5. Roosevelt was worried that Germany influence would replace the British and forced them to move their ships to the Venezuelan coast
6. The US supervised the land under military governor Leonard Wood until 1902, when Cubans elected a congress and president
7. The US honored Cuban independence
8. Platt Amendment: the Cubans were not allowed to pass any laws without the approval of the US
9. US obtained many economic rights, naval base at Guantanamo Bay, and the right to intervene if Cuban sovereignty was threatened
10. 1906, political crisis in Cuba threatened to spiral into a civil war
11. Roosevelt sent warships to patrol the coastline and special commissioners and troops to restore order and peace and public confidence
12. Dominican Republic suffered from unstable governments and poverty
13. United States took over the collection of customs in the republic
14. US intervened in Guatemala and Nicaragua where American bankers controlled nearly 50 percent of trade
15. Roosevelt created a policy where if countries were doing what they were supposed to be doing, there would be no intervention but if there was wrong-doing, the US would intervene
16. Known as the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
17. After 1904, the Roosevelt Corollary was invoked in several Caribbean countries

Opening Doors to China and Closing Doors to America

1. Initially, America’s relations to China were small but profitable
2. After 1898, Americans with dreams of exploiting the unlimited markets of China wanted to join the competition and enlarge their share
3. Some were worried US was going down the path of Imperialism
4. Most Americans viewed Chinese as heathen, exotic, and backward
5. Worker’s riots against the competition of Chinese workers in the 1870s and 1880s and the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 barring further immigration to the US reflected the negative stereotype
6. Annexation of Hawaii and the Philippines in 1898 and 1899 convinced Secretary of State Hay that the US should announce a China policy
7. Open Door notes of 1899-1900, became the cornerstone of US policy in eastern Asia for half a century
8. Demanded equal access to commercial rights in China by all nations
9. Called on all countries to respect the “territorial and administrative integrity” of China
10. Announced larger American role in Asia, offering China protection and preserving an East Asian