2. Who was Martin Luther and what were some of his complaints against the Church? Luther was a prolific and talented writer, and he published scores of works condemning the Roman Church. He attacked the Roman Church for a wide range of abuses and called for thorough reform of Christendom.
3. What role did the printing press play in the reformation? People’s ideas were shared among others faster through the printing press.
4. Describe the rapid spread of the Protestant reformation. The Protestant Reformation spread Christianity through Europe. Half of the Germanic population had adopted Lutheran Christianity, and cities such as Switzerland had established Protestant Churches.
5. Who was John Calvin and what were his main beliefs?
He was a french lawyer who converted to protestant, and he believed that a strict code of morals was the best thing for a protestant community.
6. What was the Catholic Reformation? The Council of Trent? St. Ignatius Loyola?
The catholic reformation was a way to make more distinct its differences between protestant, the council of trent was a gathering of church officials that set new standards for the Roman Catholic Church, St. ignatius was the founder of the society of jesus.
7. What became the theory of withes and how did that lead to witch hunts?
The fear that women were making alliances with the devil, this was clearly seen as dangerous and lead to which hunts.
8. What were the reasons for the Thirty years war? When was it? Where was it?
From 1618 to 1648 the tensions between the catholics and the Protestants got so heated that it lead to war in almost all of Europe and even some of Russia.
9. How did the Protestant Reformation affect the political realities of the time?
The Protestant Reformation arose within Roman Catholicism; there both its positive accomplishments and its negative effects had their roots. The standing of the church within the political order and the class structure of Western Europe had been irrevocably altered in the course of the later middle Ages. Thus the most extravagant claims put forward for the political authority of the church and the papacy, as formulated by Pope Boniface VIII (reigned 1294-1303), had come just at the time when such authority was in fact rapidly declining. By the time Protestantism arose to challenge the spiritual authority of the papacy, therefore, there was no longer any way to invoke that political authority against the challenge. The medieval class structure, too, had undergone fundamental and drastic changes with the rise of the bourgeoisie throughout Western Europe; it is not a coincidence that in northern Europe and Britain the middle class was to become the principal bulwark of the Protestant opposition to Roman Catholicism. The traditional Roman Catholic prohibition of any lending of money at interest as "usury," the monastic glorification of poverty as an ascetic ideal, and the Roman Catholic system of holidays as times when no work was to be done were all seen by the rising merchant class as obstacles to financial development.
10. Who was Charles V and how did he attempt to revive the Holy Roman Empire?
During the early sixteenth century, it seemed that Emperor Charles V (reigned 1519-1556) MIGHT establish the Holy Roman Empire as the preeminent political authority in Europe, but by midcentury it was clear that there would be no revival of empire. Thus, unlike China, India, and Ottoman lands in southwest Asia and north Africa, early modern Europe developed asa region of independent states. When he became emperor in 1519, he acquired authority over Germany, Bohemia, Switzerland, and parts of northern Italy. His empire stretched from Vienna in Austria to Cuzco in Peru.
11. Describe why Charles V failed in his attempt to revive the Holy Roman