1. The Ottoman Empire fired the shots that ignited WWI
2. Europeans were meddling in Ottoman affairs because Russia saw itself as the protector of the Slavic people. France and Britain were protecting Christian minorities and controlled Ottoman finances, taxes, railroads, mines and public utilities.
3. In Russia, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire nationalism was a dividing force.
4. Central Powers- Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, Libya
Entente Powers- Britain, Ireland, France, French Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Russia, Egypt, Serbia
5. The Western powers worked out elaborate military mobilizations based on railroads.
6. The most potent weapon on the Western Front were machine guns which provided defense against incoming armies but were bad for offense because of the weight.
7. The war at sea pitted the Britain and German naval powers against each other.
8. Women did all the jobs that men did during WWI because all the men were serving in the military.
9. Over a million Africans served in many armies and three times that were drafted as porters to carry army equipment.
10. The United States benefited the most from the war because they started to make war products and people invested in war bonds.
11. The African Americans migrated from the south to the north during WWI.
12. The Ottomans signed a secret alliance with Germany because they wanted to gain land at Russia’s expense.
13. The Ottoman Turks deported there Armenian subjects because they believed that they were being pro-Russian from their homelands in eastern Anatolia to Syria.
14. The Zionist movement aimed to take Palestine out of the Ottoman Empire and give it to the Jews and put it under British control. Its leader was Chaim Weizmann.
15. Although the Russians had the largest army in the world there problem was that they were under supplied and did not have the new technologies that the other countries had.
16. Tsar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate because of the housewives and factory workers staged a mass demonstration and the soldiers who were mutinied and joined these demonstrations.
17. The death toll of WWI was between 8 million-10 million.
18. Influenza killed 20 million people worldwide between 1918-1919.
19. Lenin paid for the industriazaton of Russia by passing the New Economic Plan which allowed peasants to own land and sell their crops, private merchants to trade and private workshops to produce and sell them on the free market.
20. After suspending reparations payments the German government began to print money endlessly causing severe inflation.
21. Zaibatsu was conglomerayes four the Mitsubishi, Sumitome, Yasuda and Mitsui which controlled most of Japans industry and commerce.
22. A result of the Boxer Rebellion of 1900 was the huge indemnity that Japan made China pay.
23. Mustapha Kemal formed a nationalistic government in central Anatolia and the area around Constantinople.
24. In Egypt the British gave them their independence but gave themselves the right to station troops along the Suez Canal to secure the link with India in event of a war. The British were able to keep Egypt not independent nor a colony due to the British alliance with King Farouk and conservative Egyptian politicians who feared both secular and religious radicalism.
25. The new social sciences in the 1920s were unsettling because they challenged Victorian morality, middle class values and notions of Western superiority. Vocab
1. Western Front- the opposing troops prepared for their defenses
2. Faisal- son of the prince of Mecca Hussein ibn Ali and led an Arab army in support of the British advances from Egypt to Palestine and Syria
3. Theodore Herzl- leader of the nationalist movement called Zionism which wanted to return to their ancestral home of Palestine (Jews)
4. Balfour Declaration- Declaration that says that Palestine will be the homeland of the Jews and that there will be no predujuce against any non-Jews in