1. During the Industrial Revolution, jobs and organizations changed dramatically. How so? Unskilled laborers running machines begin to replace high-paid, skilled artisans. Second instead of performing in fields, homes, or small shops, jobs occurred in large, formal organizations where hundreds of people worked under one roof.
2. Define scientific management. Thoroughly studying and testing different work methods to identify the best, most efficient way to complete a job.
3. Define soldering. When workers deliberately slow their pace or restrict their work output.
4. Frederick W. Taylor developed scientific management which he defines as the “one best way” of doing each task. Taylor developed scientific management because of his unhappiness at work. Why was he unhappy? How slowly the new Deal Was working
5. Frederick Taylor said that in order for scientific management to work, managers had to follow four principles of scientific management. What are the 4 principles? Develop a science, managers had to scientifically select, train, teach, and develop workers to help them reach their full potential, instructed managers to cooperate with employees to ensure that the scientific principles were actually implemented, and to divide the work and the responsibility equally between management and worker.
6. According to Taylor, a fair day’s work is what an average worker could produce at a reasonable pace, day in and day out.
7. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth are best known for what? Their use of motion studies to simplify work, but they also made significant contributions to the employment of disabled workers and to the field of industrial psychology.
8. Define motion study. Breaking each task or job into its separate motions and then eliminating those that are unnecessary or repetitive.
9. Define time study. Timing how long it takes good workers to complete each part of their jobs.
10. Henry Gantt, like Taylor, believed that companies should train and develop their workers to achieve best performance levels. He is best known for creating the Gantt chart which is a graphical chart that shows which tasks must be completed at which times in order to complete a project or task.
11. Who is Max Weber and what is he famous for? German sociologist and he presented a new a way to run the entire organizations in The Theory of Social and Economic Organizations.
12. Define bureaucracy. The exercise of control on the basis of knowledge, expertise, or experience.
13. Do you agree or disagree with Weber’s 7 elements that characterize bureaucracies? Defend your answer. I agree somewhat but sometimes employees are not hired by education and experience, it is sometimes by who you know.
14. Who is Henri Fayol and what influenced his ideas about proper management? He is best known for developing five functions of managers and fourteen principles of management, as well as his belief that management can and should be taught to others.
15. Scientific management focuses on improving efficiency; bureaucratic management focuses on using knowledge, fairness, and logical rules and procedures. Administrative management focuses on how and what managers should do in their jobs. What does human relations management focus on?
16. Who is Mary Parker Follett and what was her contribution to human relations management? On people, particularly the psychological and social aspects of work.
17. Define domination and compromise. Domination is an approach to dealing with conflict in which one party satisfies its desires and objectives at the expense of the other party’s desires and objectives. Compromise is an approach to dealing with conflict in which both parties give up some of what they want in order to reach agreement on a plan to