NUTRIENTS OF THE BODY – WHAT?
Substances found in food required by the body
Our body cells need nutrients for:
Growth (soft and hard tissue)
Reproduction (cell renewal)
Regulation of body processes
Benefits of adequate nutrients
Energy to be physically active
Fewer illnesses (immune system).
1. Nutrients – Organic and inorganic substances found in food that are required by the body for growth and maintenance of body systems.
2. Protein – Organic compounds made of amino acids essential for the body 3. Carbohydrates – compounds that include sugars, starches, celluloses and gums and serve as a major energy source. Classified as simple or complex. 4. Fats – Fats molecules are made up of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen.
Fatty acids can be saturation, monosaturated or polyunsaturated, depending on the number of double bonds in the molecule.
5. Vitamins – An organic substance vital in small quantities for the body.
6. Minerals – Elements reuqired b the body found in foods.
7. Water – A clear colourless, odorless and tasteless liquid, essential for all living things.
Contain all essential amino acids
Do not contain essential amino acids Non-essential amino acids
Can be made in the body from essential amino acids
Made up of amino acids
• Required for rapid growth (muscles & organs)
• Bone lengthening and hardening (collagen)
• Immune system strong (antibodies and red blood cells)
• Can be used as energy source if CHOs not being used
Requirements depend on many factors
(weight, size, rate of growth, activity level, illness or injury)
Animal Sources (contain essential amino acids)
• Legumes (lentils and kidney beans)
• Soy products
Classified as simple, complex and fibre.
All consist of sugar molecules bound together.
Used for energy
Formation of antibodies
Formation and maintenance of cartilage and bones
CHO’s – Simple & Complex
- Simple CHO’s – 1 or 2 sugar molecules (Monosaccharides &
- Complex CHO’s – smaller
- Can be broken down quickly
• Table Sugar (sucrose)
• Fruit (fructose)
• Milk (lactose)
• Soft Drinks
- Slower & more stable release of energy
• Wholegrain cereals
(breads, pasta, rice)
• Vegetables, legumes
simple sugars (Polysaccharides)
CHO’s - Fibre
• Wheat bran
• Corn bran
• Rice bran
• Skins of fruit & vegetables
• Dried beans
• Wholegrain foods
• Oat bran
• Seed husks
• Dried beans
• Soy products
• Concentrated source of energy 1gram = 9 calories • Important for body’s development
• Not preferred source of energy (fats more difficult and slower to break down)
• Carrier for fat-soluble vitamins
Fats – saturated & monosaturated
Saturated (bad fats)
• Solid at room temperature • Animal products
• Including omega 3 & 6 fatty acids
• Vegetable oils
• Oily fish
• Essential for healthy cells
• Make up about 55-65% of the body
• Primary transportation of nutrients and oxygen • Allows kidney to filter waste products
• Regulate body temperature
• Fruit and vegetables have a high water content (sources of water)
• Key nutrient required for building bone and other hard tissue (teeth, cartilage).
• Extremely important during periods of rapid growth, especially during youth!