6. Alan Merriam’s 10 functions of music society are; 1.) Music as an influence on physical response 2.) Music as a form of communication 3.) Music as a form of emotional expression 4.) Music as symbolic representation 5.) Music to enforce conformity to social norms 6.) Music to validate social institutions and religious rituals 7.) Music to contribute to the continuity and stability of culture 8.) Music to contribute to the integration of society 9.) Music for aesthetic enjoyment
10.) Music for entertainment.
7. Referentialist theory reflects that the meaning of music arises from connections the listener makes between the music itself and some nonmusical objects or event. While expressionistic point of view is that music’s meaning result from the musical sounds themselves and nothing more. While they are similar in that both theories in some way take into account that tempo, melodic line, rhythm, etc. All are linked to different emotional meanings in music. They both have research that shows neurological basis for bringing out emotional cues such as sounds and sights of a walk through a certain garden.
8. Association through contiguity in the context of music and emotions is another way in which music can refer to objects or events in life. This can occur when a particular musical selection or style of music has been paired with a specific event. The music alone can eventually elicit the same types of feelings that occurred when an event took place.
10. The scholar associated with the theory of expectations is Leonard Meyer.
11. Yes, in my opinion music is the universal language because people all over can relate to all different…