Chapter 4 Study Terms Essays

Submitted By atsuminalove
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Chapter 4 Study Terms

George Washington’s presidency:

Development of political parties

Federalists: Hamilton
Favored strong nat’l gov’t
Democracy dangerous b/c ppl’s judgement constantly changing
Manufacture/trade :)
Supported by artisans, merchants, manufacturers, bankers, urban workers, E. farmers
NE support federalists

Democratic-Republicans: TJ
Agrarianism: strength of US was independent farmers
Owning land allowed ppl to be independent, as long as had land, would fight to preserve Republic
Feared emphasis on commerce would divided society between rich&poor
Feared wealthy corrupt gov’t, threat right of ordinary ppl
S&W support republicans

Bill of Rights
Hamilton’s Economic Plan

“Necessary and proper” clause: elastic clause, make laws if needed to make gov’t stronger/efficient

Judiciary Act of 1789: established 13 district courts, 3 courts of appeal, and the Supreme Court

Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation:
Neutrality of US during war of Br./Fr.

Tariff of 1789: required importers to pay a percentage of the value of their cargo when landed in US, shippers also paid tonnage (tax based on how much ships carried)

Bank of the United States
Hamilton asks Congress to create national bank
Argued gov’t need bank to manage debts/interest payments, would also issue paper money/bank notes to provide national currency to help economy
S ppl opposed b/c N ppl own most of bank’s stock, Madison, TJ, Randolph opp. b/c creating bank not in enumerated powers
Ham. Disagreed, using elastic clause (ability to make laws which r necessary/proper)
Congress passed bill,Wash. Signed, Bank created 1791

Whiskey Rebellion: 1791 Congress imposed tax on whiskey enraged farmers who distilled grains in whiskey before shipping Whiskey rebellion in W. Penn. 1794, farmers terrorized tax collectors, robbed mail, stopped court proceedings Wash. Sent troops to stop, rebels disperse, ppl worried willingness to use troops against civilians

Jay’s Treaty:
Br. need US trade, vice versa, signed treaty, but Br. had right to seize cargo bound for Fr ports, didn’t get compensation for goods seized
Br. agreed to internat’l arbitration (hearing by neut. 3rd countries), give up forts on amer terr., granted US most-favored nation status (amer no longer discriminated when trade w/ br., allowed limited trade w/ Br. colonies in Caribbean)
When treaty sent to senate, terms shock senate, tried to keep secret, ratified, terms leaked to public, repub attack treaty, accuse fed of pro-br., GW approved treaty

Pinckney’s Treaty:
Jay treaty help concessions from Sp., 1795 sp. Join fr. Against br., sp. Fear treaty would make amer & br. join to seize Sp. N amer holdings, sp offered to negotiate issues w/ US
GW sends Thomas Pinckney
1795: Sp. Sign Pinckney’s treaty (Treaty of San Lorenzo)
Grant us right to navigate Miss., deposit goods at new orl. Port, accepted broadly, esp. W. farmers, wanted Miss. to get crops to market

Treaty of Greenville:
Ppl go to NW territoryMiami chief Little Turtle unites other Indians to defend against whitesdefeated Josiah Harmar & Arthur St. ClairGW sends Anthony Wayne to stop 1794 wayne against Blue Jacket at Battle of Fallen Timbers, wayne wins natives sign treaty of Greenville (1795):give up part of S. Ohio & Indiana for yearly payment of $10 th. From gov’t, also gave up other land settlers increase

John Adams’s presidency

Impressment
Br. take US sailors to sail on Br. ships

Quasi-War:
After XYZ affair, US >:(, call for war w/ Fr. June 1798, Congress suspend trade w/ Fr., direct navy to capture Fr. ships undeclared sea war/Quasi-War Fr. propose new negotiations both signed Convention of 1800US gave up claims against Fr. for US ship damage, Fr. release US from Treaty of 1778

Alien and Sedition Acts:
Feds pushed for 4 laws 1st 3 aimed at aliens, recent immigrants often anti-Br., tended to vote for republicans
1st law: changed yrs to wait to become citizen 514
2nd&3rd: prez has power to deport w/out trial aliens…