Chapter 5 Outline APUSH Essay

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Defining American War Aims
Second continental congress met after the battles of Lexington and Concord
a. Delegates from all colonies besides Georgia met in Philadelphia in 1775
The liberals wanted complete independence from Great Britain while the conservatives wanted to restore the relationship with Great Britain
a. hoped to restore the relationship that was obtained before the French Indian War
The moderates created two reformations in order to create a balance between separating from Great Britain and fixing the relationship
a. Olive Branch Petition: last appeal, presented the idea of fixing problems without asking for independence, no war needed
b. Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Arms: the colonies warned Great
Britain about fighting for their rights if their concerns weren’t acknowledged but it did not declare independence.
At first people thought they were fighting for reconciliation with Great Britain but many began to change their minds for several reasons
a. war was too expensive
b. people didn’t want to fight for Great Britain because they had developed a sense of culture ­ Great Britain tried to get slaves and Native Americans to fight with them
King George III rejected the Olive Branch Petition and established the ProhibItory Act­ did not permit any trade oversea (with colonies)
January 1776­ Common Sense (Thomas Paine) changed the way people viewed the war a. people no longer wanted to restore the relationship with Great Britain; they decided the
English constitution was their problem
Common sense stated that it was only common sense for colonists to break free from the King and parliament since they depended on one another
The Decision for Independence
Common Sense was very eye opening for its audience; it influenced a lot of people to support independence
Continental congress declared ports open for trade besides with Great Britain
b. Started communicating with foreign powers
c. advised colonies to form independent governments
July 2,1776: adopted a draft of the declaration of independence
July 4,1776: approved the declaration of independence written by Thomas Jefferson,
Benjamin Franklin and John Adams
a. The constitution addressed ideas that had been presented before to the king; it listed all the rights that parliament had violated
b. it contained ideas from John Locke; government should protect the basic rights of the people: life, liberty, and property (pursuit of happiness in constitution)
It influenced the French because people started to stand up for their rights
created divisions within American Society
Responses to Independence


Loyalists supported the fight for independence; Tories wanted to maintain the relationship with Great Britain
After the declaration of Independence, the colonies started to consider themselves as states a. 1781, states had their own constitutions and republican government
States were considered the center of authority because people didn't want a national government a. They were afraid they would face the same conflicts they faced with Great Britain b. States feared they would be taxed or denied of certain rights
November 1777, Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation but they weren’t made official until 1781 confirming that there had been a weak uncentralized government 5.
Continental congress was the main coordinator of the war effort a. Its power over the individual states was very limited
Mobilizing for War 1. It was challenging to prepare for war (to organize armies and obtain supplies) without connection to the British a. The states got their ammunition from France 2. Money in America was scarce and the government didn't have power to tax people b. Government had to issue paper money which led to inflation ­value of money decreased