Dr. Nancy R. Bishop Newton
Human capital is the productive potential of an individual’s knowledge and actions. Social Capital is productive potential resulting from strong relationships, goodwill, trust, and cooperative effort. Human capital involves individual characteristics and abilities, Social Capital involves social relationships. Human capital would involve functions such as job related training such as your company’s products, or services. Work based development opportunities such as a mentor, and learning a second language. Social Capital has two general types . These types are internal and external to your current employer, such as relationships with co workers in another office and relationships with suppliers.
According to the competing values , defining culture along two axes (internal or external focus and preference for stability or flexibility) defines four types of organizational cultures. A clan culture has an external focus and values flexibility; it emphasizes innovation and fast responses to change. A market culture has a strong external focus and values stability and control; such organizations are driven by competition and emphasize customer satisfaction. A hierarchy culture has an internal focus and values stability and control; it emphasizes formal, structured work to meet high standards
The process essentially begins with targeting one of three layers of organizational culture- observable artifacts, exposed values, and basic assumptions for change. This is accomplished by using one of more of eleven mechanisms: (a) formal statements of organizational philosophy, mission, vision, values, and materials used for recruiting, selection, and socialization (b) the design of physical space, work environments, and buildings; (c) slogans, language, acronyms, and sayings (d) deliberate role modeling, training programs, teaching and coaching by managers and supervisors (e) explicit rewards, status symbols, and promotion criteria; (f) stories, legends, and myths about key people and events; (g) the organizational activities process, or outcomes that leaders pat attention to, measure and control (h) leader reactions to critical incidents and organizational crisis (i) organizational systems and procedures (j) the work flow and procedures (k) organizational goals and associated criteria used for recruitment, selection, development, promotion, layoffs, and recruitment of people. Cultural changes or differences involve a respect for the individual, customer service, and striving for excellence, according to Sam Walton. Slogans, and acronyms have been used in advertising and are a normal in everyday culture and when a company attempts to change culture knowledge of culture is essential. The three phases of Feldman’s model are anticipatory socialization, encounter, and change and acquisition. Anticipatory socialization begins before an individual actually joins an organization. The encounter phase begins when the employment contract has been signed. Phase 3 involves the period in which employees master important task and resolve any role conflicts
The various tactics used to socialize employees are collective v/s individual, formal v/s informal, sequential vs random, fixed vs variable, serial vs disjunctive, and investiture. Each tactic provides organizations with two opposing options for socializing employees. These tactics provide means of developing socialization norms which allow members to feel part of the organization.
1. Power distance- How equally should power be distributed? 2. Uncertainty avoidance – How much social norms and rules reduce uncertainty and unpredictability? 3. Institutional Collectivism- How much should loyalty to the social unit