Native American Resistance

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Madison Giacobbi
Chapter 6 Outline
Native American Resistance
Before American colonies gained independence from Britain, relationships between Native Americans and colonists were often marked by violence
War in the Old Northwest:
The American Revolution had broken the power of the Iroquois nations in the North and beaten back the Cherokee in the South.
The British soon deserted the Native Americans
As a result of battles, the Miami, Delaware, Shawnee, and other Native Americans were forced in 1795 to accept the Treaty of Greenville, in which they lost the southern two thirds of Ohio.
Native American Reactions:
In the early 1800s, several Native American leaders proposed different ways to deal with the U.S.
Accepting White Culture-
Some Native Americans followed the path of Little Turtle, a leader of the Miami people
He made peace with white settlers and adopted some of their customs
Blending Indian and American Cultures-
In western New York a Seneca named Handsome Lake followed a different course
Fought with British
Suffered humiliation of being fined to a reservation, an area that the federal government set aside for Native Americans who had lost their homelands
Urged Native Americans to abandon war and instead to give more attention to traditional Indian rituals
Returning to Indian Traditions-
In Indiana another leader arose, among the Shawnee, Delaware, and Miami
Tenskwatawa strongly opposed assimilation, the process by which people of one culture merge into and become apart of another
In 1808 he established Prophets town on the Wabash River
Taking Military Action-
Tecumseh had fought against the U.S. In the 1780s and 1790s and had earned a reputation as a talented war chief
He believed that Indians only hope of resisting American expansion was to unite by overcoming local and group differences.
He and several dozen warriors met with governor Harrison to protest against Native Americans
Just before sunrise on November 7th, 1811, after a day of negotiations, Tenskwatawa sent his warriors to attack Harrison and his men
The Battle of Tippecanoe lasted about two hours
Native American military resistance was not over and Tecumseh rallied warriors to fight with the British in Canada.
A few weeks later, Tecumseh died in the Battle of the Thames in Ontario, Canada.

The Jefferson Administration
Thomas Jefferson entered office with a straightforward agenda, or list of things he wanted to accomplish.
Reducing Government:
Jefferson reversed much of what the Federalist had done, starting with matters of a presidential style
Domestic Changes-
Jeffersons effect on the government went beyond style, he reduced taxes and cut the size of the federal bureaucracy- the departments and workers that make up a federal government
He did not intend to destroy the government created by the Constitution, or even to undo all the acts of Federalists
Jeffersons program made him extremely popular during his first term
Hamilton and Burr-
Jeffersons greatest rivals were his Vice President, Aaron Burr, and Alexandor Hamilton, now a lawyer in New York
The Judiciary Acts-
The most controversial part of his first term was his relationship with the judicial branch, particularly the supreme court
Just before the end of his term, Congress passed the Judiciary act of 1801 which decreased the number of Supreme Court justices and increased the number of federal judges
John Marshall:
One of Adams judicial appointments was John Marshall, a long-time Federalist leader.
Marshall became Chief Justice and held that post for 34 years
Marbury v. Madison-
The case of Marbury v. Madison (1803) arose when President Jefferson tried to block the activities of Federalist judges
Judicial Review-
Chief Justice John Marshall ruled against Marbury, declaring that it was