January 09, 2013
US History Honors Pd 7
Chapter 7(Amsco): The Age of Jefferson,
Jefferson Presidency- * During his first term, the Democratic- Republican president attempted to win allegiance and trust of Federalist opponents by maintaining the national bank and debt-repayment plan of Hamilton. * Carried out the neutrality policies left by Washington and Adams * Retained loyalty to Republican supporters by adhering to his party’s guiding principle of limited central government. * Reduced size of military, federal jobs, national debt, and repealed the excise taxes- including on whiskey. * Only Republicans were named to his cabinet * Of the 4 years of Jefferson term, he was free of discord. * Important achievement: the acquisition by the purchase of vast western lands known as the Louisiana Territory.
The Louisiana Purchase- * The Louisiana Territory is a vast, largely unexplored tract of western land through which the Mississippi and Missouri rivers flowed. * Mouth of Mississippi mouth is where port of New Orleans is. Claimed by Spain. * Napoleon Bonaparte secretly forced to give back to the Louisiana Territory. * Napoleon wanted to restore the French empire in America, but gave up because of 2 reasons: (1) he needed to concentrate on French resources on fighting England and (2) a rebellion led by Toussaint l’Ouverture against French rule on the island of Santo Domingo had resulted in heavy French losses.
U.S. Interest in the Mississippi River- * Western frontier extended beyond Ohio and Kentucky into the Indiana Territory. * Settlers depended on the trade and transportation of goods westward into Mississippi and southwards to New Orleans * 1802-Spanish officials, who were still in charge closed the ports and the Americans revoked the right of deposit in the Pinckney Treaty of 1795
* Jefferson sent out ministers to France to bribe them up to 10 million for New Orleans and a strip of the port eastward of Florida. If not then they were instructed to make US- British alliances. * Luckily, French ministers seeking funds for a war against Britain offered to sell New Orleans and the WHOLE Louisiana Territory for 15 million.
Constitutional Predicaments- * Americans approved, but Jefferson was committed to a strict interpretation of the Constitution and rejected Hamilton’s argument that certain powers were implied. * The Republication majority in the Senate quickly ratified the purchase.
Consequences- * The Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of the US * Removed a foreign purchase presence from the nation’s border * Guaranteed the extension of the western frontier land beyond Mississippi * New land would strengthen Jefferson’s hopes that his country’s future would be based on an agrarian society of independent farmers rather than Hamilton’s vision of an urban and industrial society. * Showed Federalist to be weak, sectionalist (New- England- Based)
Lewis and Clark Expedition- * Captain Meriweather Lewis and Lieutenant William Clark * Lewis and Clark set out on their scientific exploration funded by congress (persuaded by Jefferson) from St. Louis in 1804 * Crossed the Rockies, reached the Oregon coast on the Pacific Ocean, then turned around in 1806 * Benefits: * Increased geographical and scientific knowledge * Strengthened US claims to the Oregon Territory * Improved relations with Native American tribes * Developed maps and land routes for fur trappers and future settlers
John Marshalls and the Supreme Court- * Republican victory in 1800, Federalist only had powers over federal courts.
John Marshall- * Cousin of Jefferson was appointed to Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in final months of Adams * Office for 34 years * Landmark cases had the effect of strengthening the central government, often at the expense of