Chapter 8 Study Guide Essay

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Describe each term with at least 2 sentences: a. Liberalism ­
A: political philosophy or view based on ideas of liberty and equality b. Nationalism ­
A view of superiority for your own nation, a sense of individual national identity. c. Louis Philippe ­
A: The distant cousin of Charles X and the leader of the July Revolution. He was elected as a monarchy by popular vote by citizens. His rule was known as the July
Monarchy which eventually was overthrown in 1848. d. Karageorge
Serbian leader who led the first rebellion against the Ottoman Empire, and failed. e. Autonomy­ self rule within an empire; ruled themselves but still to the Ottoman Empire. f. Napoleon III ­
Napoleon Bonaparte’s nephew; the man who was elected President after Louis Philippe during the 1848 French Revolt, named himself Emperor and created the Second

g. Louis Kossuth ­
A Hungarian nationalist. Gathered his people on the streets of Budapest demanding an independent government, an end to serfdom, and a written constitution protecting basic rights. h. Toussaint L’Ouverture ­
He was a self educated former slave. He initiated the Haitian revolution against France. i. Agustín de Iturbide ­
A conservative Creole, he spent years fighting Mexican revolutionaries. He was alarmed when Spain created it's constitution. He led rebels and helped Mexicans gain their independence. j. Simón Bolivar ­ a military and political leader who admired the French and American
Revolutions. He too was exiled from Haiti twice.

Open­Ended Response 1. Describe the rebellion in Prussia. What was the outcome?
● The rebellion was led by university students and prussian liberals,they forced the
King to agree to constitution written by an elected assembly, which he later took apart.They did this because they wanted unity and reform, they tried to offer the crown of a united Germany to their king but he refused in summation it was a complete failure. 2. What were the causes of the July Revolution of 1830?
A: The causes of the July Revolution of 1830 are....
● Charles X’s desire to bring back absolutism
● Rejection of the French Charter (by Charles X)
● Suspension of the legislature in 1830 (by Charles X)
● limited rights to vote (for the lower classes)
● restricted the press (no freedom of speech)

● Increased poverty in cities (due to Charles X’s neglect)
3. Why did the Greeks revolt? Why did European powers support the Greeks for their independence?
❏ The Greeks revolted because they wanted independence from the Ottoman rule.
They were supported by the other European powers because they were also against the Ottoman Empire.
4. Why did the Belgians revolt? And why would other European countries have interest in their fight?
The Belgians revolted because of religious reasons, the Dutch were Protestants and
Belgians were Catholic. Other nations had interest in their fight because they could benefit from it; if Belgium was