Peninsulares – in Spanish colonial society, colonist who were born in Spain
Creoles – in Spanish colonial society, a colonist who was born in Latin America to Spanish parents
Mestizos – a person of mixed Spanish and Native American history
Mulattos – persons of mixed European and African ancestry
Toussaint L’Ouverture – led enslaves Africans in a revolt against the French that ended slavery and resulted in the new nation of Haiti.
Simon Bolivar – Wealthy Venezuelan creole general.
Jose De San Martin – An Argentinian, Chilean, and Peruvian liberator
Miguel Hidalgo – a priest of a small village of Dolores. Issued a call for rebellion against the Spanish
Jose Maria Morelos – Led Hidalgos revolution for 4 years.
Brazilian Independence – king john planned to make brazil a colony again – people did not agree – rallied and 8,000 creoles signed petition for its independence – September 7 1822 brazil was declared independent
Conservative – in the first half of the 19th century, a European – mainly wealthy landowners and nobles – who wanted to preserve the traditional monarchies of Europe.
Liberal – in the first half of the 19th century, a European – mainly middle class business leaders and merchants – who wanted to give more political power to elected parliments.
Radical – in the first half of the 19th century, a European who favored drastic change to extend democracy to all people.
Nationalism – the belief that people should be loyal mainly to their nation – that is, to the people with whom they share a culture and history – rather than to a king or empire.
Nation state – an independent geopolitical unit of people having a common culture and identity
1830s revolutions -
1848 revolutions -
Louis Napoleon -
Alexander II -
3 forms of nationalism -
Mergers of politically didvided but culturally similar lands
19th century Germany
19th century italy…