Dr. Wanda Gilliard Chapter 9 Power and Control at State and National Levels Chapter Review
This particular chapter discusses the relationships between federal and state control of schools. Even though there is nothing in the US Constitution that deals with education, in the recent years, the federal government has exercised some forms of control over education. This issue has gotten so serious that even in Presidential campaigns they have addressed school issues from federal involvement in sex education to the testing of students.
Categorical aid is another important topic discussed in Chapter 9. This type of aid is the source of federal influence over local schools policies. In addition, this aid is money provided to support specific federal programs such as No child Left Behind. Once the school districts accept this federal money, they also have to accept the federal regulations that come with the money, as well as the requirements that accompany this program. Research has shown the alarming statistics that show the increase in federal influence, but the little money that the schools actually spend on the students. Since 1989, there has been an increase in funding from the federal government, but continued decrease in total revenue for public elementary and secondary education. From school years 1988-1989 through 2008-2009, the total elementary and secondary schooling revenues increased from 350 billion to 611 billion dollars; a 74 percent increase.
No Child Left Behind, as Categorical Federal Aid, balances federal and state power by allowing state powers to determine their own academic standards and testing programs. However, by using these Categorical aiding provided by legislation, the federal government is able to require states to implement a range of activities. These activities include creating academic standards and testing programs, requiring public reporting of test scores, identifying and improving schools failing to meet AYP, using particular types of reading programs, offering choice plans, and other additional provisions within the legislation.
Increasing state involvement in schools is a matter that is beginning to be focused on more as the years pass. Today, most states exercise the following major functions regarding education: establishing academic standards and curriculum guidelines for local school districts, testing students for achievement of Academic Standards, testing teachers as part of the licensing procedure, licensing teachers, enacting laws that affect the content of instruction and providing funds to local school districts.
President Obama’s has a major educational platform that he implemented during his terms in office. Important aspects of this particular platform include: adopting internationally benchmarked standards and assessments that prepare students for success in