Essay about Chapter Notes

Submitted By chapmane
Words: 2286
Pages: 10

1) II. The Globalization of Christianity 2) In 1500, Christianity was mostly limited to Europe. 1. small communities in Egypt, Ethiopia, southern India, and Central Asia 2. serious divisions within Christianity (Roman Catholic vs. Eastern Orthodox) 3. on the defensive against Islam a. loss of the Holy Land by 1300 b. fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453 3) Western Christendom Fragmented: The Protestant Reformation A) Protestant Reformation began in 1517 a) Martin Luther posted the Ninety-five Theses, asking for debate about ecclesiastical abuses b) Luther’s protest was more deeply grounded in theological difference i. argued a new understanding of salvation—through faith alone rather than through good works c. questioned the special role of the clerical hierarchy (including the pope) B) Luther’s ideas provoked a massive schism in Catholic Christendom c) fed on political, economic, and social tension, not just religious differences d) commoners were attracted to the new religious ideas as a tool for protest against the whole social order ii. German peasant revolts in the 1520s 4. many women were attracted to Protestantism, but the Reformation didn’t give them a greater role in church or society d. Protestants ended veneration of Mary and other female saints iii. male Christ figure was left as sole object of worship e. Protestants closed convents, which had given some women an alternative to marriage f. only Quakers among the Protestants gave women an official role in their churches g. some increase in the education of women, because of emphasis on Bible reading 5. the recently invented printing press helped Reformation thought spread rapidly h. Luther issued many pamphlets and a German translation of the New Testament 6. religious difference made Europe’s fractured political system even more volatile i. 1562–1598: French Wars of Religion (Catholics vs. Huguenots) iv. August 24, 1572: massacre of thousands of Huguenots v. Edict of Nantes issued by Henry IV in 1598: granted considerable religious toleration to Protestants j. 1618–1648: the Thirty Years’ War vi. Catholic-Protestant fight started in the Holy Roman Empire vii. spread to most of Europe viii. killed off 15–30 percent of the German population 7. Protestant Reformation provoked a Catholic Counter-Reformation k. Council of Trent (1545–1563) clarified Catholic doctrines and practices l. corrected the abuses and corruption that the Protestants had protested m. crackdown on dissidents n. new attention given to individual spirituality and piety o. few religious orders (e.g., the Society of Jesus [Jesuits]) were committed to renewal and expansion 8. the Reformation encouraged skepticism toward authority and tradition p. fostered religious individualism q. in the following centuries, the Protestant habit of independent thinking led to skepticism about all revealed religion 4) Christianity Outward Bound C) Christianity motivated and benefited from European expansion r. explorers combined religious and material interests D) imperialism made