1) II. The Globalization of Christianity 2) In 1500, Christianity was mostly limited to Europe. 1. small communities in Egypt, Ethiopia, southern India, and Central Asia 2. serious divisions within Christianity (Roman Catholic vs. Eastern Orthodox) 3. on the defensive against Islam a. loss of the Holy Land by 1300 b. fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453 3) Western Christendom Fragmented: The Protestant Reformation A) Protestant Reformation began in 1517 a) Martin Luther posted the Ninety-five Theses, asking for debate about ecclesiastical abuses b) Luther’s protest was more deeply grounded in theological difference i. argued a new understanding of salvation—through faith alone rather than through good works c. questioned the special role of the clerical hierarchy (including the pope) B) Luther’s ideas provoked a massive schism in Catholic Christendom c) fed on political, economic, and social tension, not just religious differences d) commoners were attracted to the new religious ideas as a tool for protest against the whole social order ii. German peasant revolts in the 1520s 4. many women were attracted to Protestantism, but the Reformation didn’t give them a greater role in church or society d. Protestants ended veneration of Mary and other female saints iii. male Christ figure was left as sole object of worship e. Protestants closed convents, which had given some women an alternative to marriage f. only Quakers among the Protestants gave women an official role in their churches g. some increase in the education of women, because of emphasis on Bible reading 5. the recently invented printing press helped Reformation thought spread rapidly h. Luther issued many pamphlets and a German translation of the New Testament 6. religious difference made Europe’s fractured political system even more volatile i. 1562–1598: French Wars of Religion (Catholics vs. Huguenots) iv. August 24, 1572: massacre of thousands of Huguenots v. Edict of Nantes issued by Henry IV in 1598: granted considerable religious toleration to Protestants j. 1618–1648: the Thirty Years’ War vi. Catholic-Protestant fight started in the Holy Roman Empire vii. spread to most of Europe viii. killed off 15–30 percent of the German population 7. Protestant Reformation provoked a Catholic Counter-Reformation k. Council of Trent (1545–1563) clarified Catholic doctrines and practices l. corrected the abuses and corruption that the Protestants had protested m. crackdown on dissidents n. new attention given to individual spirituality and piety o. few religious orders (e.g., the Society of Jesus [Jesuits]) were committed to renewal and expansion 8. the Reformation encouraged skepticism toward authority and tradition p. fostered religious individualism q. in the following centuries, the Protestant habit of independent thinking led to skepticism about all revealed religion 4) Christianity Outward Bound C) Christianity motivated and benefited from European expansion r. explorers combined religious and material interests D) imperialism made
Chapter 18-1 Notes
Imperialism- policy of extending control over weaker nations.
In 1800s, Europeans divide up most of Africa, compete for China.
Desire for Military Strength
Admiral Alfred T. Mahan urges U.S. to build up navy to compete.
U.S. builds modern battleships, becomes third largest naval power.
Thirst for New Markets
U.S. needs raw materials, new markets for goods.
Foreign trade: solution to overproduction, unemployment, depression
CHAPTER 4 NOTES
Cost-Volume-Profit analysis considers, individually and in combination, the effect(s) on profit of
Sales volume (activity)
Variable cost per unit
Total fixed cost
The contribution margin income statement (introduced in Chapter 3 if you need to refer back) can be expressed in total dollars, in dollars per unit (for sales and variable costs only), and also, as we’ll see a little further on, as a percent of sales (usually, but not always, for variable costs…
CHAPTER 3 NOTES
Cost Structure: the proportion of variable costs and fixed costs in an organization.
Variable cost: these costs vary in total directly and proportionately with activity level, but are constant per unit.
Activity level or activity base: measure of what causes or drives variable cost.
Can be a measure of either inputs or outputs.
For many purposes we’ll use output units as the activity base – but not always as time goes on!
EXAMPLES: See Exhibit 3-2.
Chapter 3 Notes:
Resourced Bases View
Split into two activities: Primary Activates & Support Activities
-Inbound Logistics: associated with receiving storing and distributing
-Operations: associated with transforming inputs into the final product form
-Outbound Logistics: associated with collecting, storing, and distributing products to service or buyers
-Marketing and sales: associated with purchasing…
October 25th, 2011
Lecture #1 – Sensation
Chapter 5 – Sensation
* How do we perceive the world around us?
* Gain information from a variety of sources
* Psychophysics and Psychophysiology
What do Weber fractions tell you about sensation?
Psychophysics is a relation between physical stimulus and psychological response
* Fechner: Father of Psychophysics
* Can determine a just noticeable difference
* JND – Just Noticeable Difference…
Chapter 2 Notes:
Material culture: the material objects that distinguish a group of people, such as their art, buildings, weapons, utensils, machines, hairstyles, jewelry, clothing.
Nonmaterial culture: a group’s way of thinking and doing; aka symbolic culture.
Culture shock: the disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend on their taken-for-granted assumptions about life.
Ethnocentrism: the use of one’s own culture…
Chapter 1 Notes
Origins of Sociology
● 9000 B.C. Domestication of Plants
○ Abundant stable food supply.
○ Stable settlements and eventually cities.
○ Food Surplus brought conflict and social stratification.
move to cities in 17th and 18th Century social philosophers.
○ Sociology emerged in response to the intellectual ferment and confusion.
factors that supported the development of sociology.
○ Examples of natural sciences.
○ Exposure of Europe to different societies through colonial expansion…
Chapter 24 Reading Notes
1. What was the purpose of the Notice to Travelers issued by the German government?
To warn Americans and other Travelers that sailing to England could make them be considered an enemy of Germany during the World War.
2. What was President’s response to the sinking of the Lusitania? 1st, 2nd, & 3rd, notes?
Wilson demanded a change in German policy.
Firs note called on Germany to abandon unrestricted submarine warfare, disavow the sinking, and evasive replay
Chapter 22 Notes
As blood circulates some fluid leaks into the surrounding tissue a network of vessels, nodes and organs collect the fluid and returns it back to the circulatory system. This network is called the lymphatic system.
The lymphatic system is made of cells and biochemical that travel in lymphatic vessels, organs and glands that produce them.
1. L vessels carry away excess fluid from interstitial spaces in the tissues and return it to the bloodstream.
2. It also plays an…
Atticus Pennylegion Hurley
AP US History
October 2, 2014
Chapter 2 Notes
As the Europeans began to arrive in the Americas feuds began to form between the natives and them. Through trading of furs and newly found agriculture, the conflicts grew heavily.
New Spain: Colonization and Conversation
Around the 1540s the Spanish sought to obtain as much gold as they could possibly get, looking all over North America. Although, they didn’t find any gold they discovered landmarks such as the Grand Canyon…