Humanism-an intellectual movement at the heart of the Renaissance that focused on education and the classics
Secular-Concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters
Patrons-People who use their own money to support the arts
Perspective-Artistic technique used by Renaissance painters that shows three dimensions on a flat surface
Vernacular-native or everyday language
Utopia-a book by Sir Thomas More (1516) describing the perfect society on an imaginary island
William Shakespeare-English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers (1564-1616)
Johann Gutenberg-German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468)
Indulgence- The forgiveness of the punishment due for past sins, granted by the Catholic Church authorities as a reward for a pious act. Martin Luther's protest against the sale of indulgences is often seen as touching off the Protestant Reformation.
Reformation-a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted the creation of Protestant churches
Lutheran-A member of a Protestant church founded on the teachings of Martin Luther.
Protestant-christians who belonged to non-catholic churches
Peace of Augsburg-A treaty in 1555 between Charles V and Lutheran Princes that ended the religious struggle between the two groups, stating that the princes could decide what section of Christianity their land would follow
Annul-to make void or invalid
Anglican-Protestant sect founded by Henry VIII. It was made the official church of England since Henry VIII made the decision to seperate the Holy Roman Catholic Church from England. The Church of England kept the organization and ceremonies of the Catholic Church but overtime it adopted some Protestant doctrines
Religious Beliefs and practices in the 16th century: Leadership-RC: Pope is head of church.
Lutheranism: Ministers lead congregations.
Calvinism: Council of elders govern each church.
Anglicanism: English monarch is head of the church.
Religious Beliefs and practices in the 16th century: Salvation-RC: Salvation by faith and good works.
Lutheranism: Salvation by faith alone.
Calvinism: God has pre determined who will be saved
Anglicanism: Salvation by faith alone.
Religious Beliefs and practices in the 16th century: Bible-RC: Church and Bible tradition are sources of revealed truth.
Lutheranism: Bible is sole source of revealed truth.
Calvinism: Bible is sole source of revealed truth.
Anglicanism: Bible is sole source of revealed truth.
Religious Beliefs and practices in the 16th century: Worship Service-RC: Worship service based on ritual.
Lutheranism: Worship service focused on preaching and ritual.
Calvinism: Worship service focused on preaching .
Anglicanism: Worship service focused on ritual and preaching.
Religious Beliefs and practices in the 16th century: Interpretation of Beliefs-RC: Priests interpret Bible and Church teachings for believers.
Lutheranism: Believers interpret the Bible for themselves.
Calvinism: Believers interpret the Bible for themselves.
Anglicanism: Believers interpret the Bible using tradition and reason..
Luther's teachings-Salvation by faith alone in God's gift of forgiveness, all teachings should be based on the Bible, and people of faith were equal, they didn't need someone to interpret the Bible
95 thesis-Martin Luthers list of 95 arguements against the indulgences which were posted on the door of a church in Wittenberg, Germany in 1517
Pope Leo X-pope who condemned Luther for heresy and later excommunicated him
Charles V-This was the Holy Roman Emperor that called for the Diet of Worms. He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the