With the accession of Charles to the Spanish throne, Spain suddenly acquired large swathes of land in central and northern Europe (Austria, the Netherlands, Burgundy and chunks of Germany). In spite of a hefty inheritance received from his Spanish ancestors, Charles I of Hapsburgs exceeded his expenditures due to goals set by him as Holy Roman Emperor (HRE): commitment to Christendom, war with the Turks, fights with the French neighbours. To begin with one of Charles I goals was the commitment to Christendom. Christianity was now the common bond that held Spaniards together. Nevertheless, the religious conformity of baptized Jews and converted Muslims was frequently tested and there was widespread suspicion that their conversion was not genuine. Three years after Charles’s arrival, Spanish resentment at Flemish control erupted in the year long Revolt of the Comuneros (members of a popular communal movement). It didn’t help that Charles also requested money in pursuit of the office of Holy Roman Emperor (HRE). Spaniards feared that their country’s welfare would be subordinated to Charles’s obligations to defend the interests of the Catholic Church beyond Spain’s borders, and to some degree their fears were justified. Charles did become HRE (as Charles V) in 1519, and his priorities did extend beyond Spain. Indeed, of the 40 years that Charles ruled, he spent only 16 in Spain; in the last 13 years of his reign. The problems that stood against that plan were great. Charles always called for a crusade against the Turks, however his request was mainly ignored and some Christians, like the French, even allied with the Turks. France represented the first problem. Instead of feeling protected by its Christian neighbors, it felt dangerously flanked by Burgundy and Spain. After the peace of Madrid, Charles V set Francis free, trusting in his noble character. However Francis did not recognize his resuming of the war as a breaking of an oath, but rather he viewed this as an absolute political need. The fact that Charles never really understood the meaning of the Reformation also had a great impact. Instead of viewing the reformation as a new religious way of thinking, he just saw it as a revolt against the church. he didn’t set foot in the country at all. In addition, Charles won Spaniards over by identifying them increasingly with the mission of defending Catholicism. His struggle with the threat of heretical Protestants in Northern Europe and with Ottoman (Turkish) activities in the Mediterranean touched a common chord and recalled the crusading spirit of the Reconquista, which was still relatively fresh in the collective Spanish memory. But not all of Charles’s enemies were Protestants or Muslims. Catholic France, led by the youthful Francis I, was traditionally hostile to Aragón and challenged Charles’s claims to the duchy of Burgundy and the strategically placed duchy of Milan in northern Italy. In addition, Francis had a personal grudge against Charles, who had out-won him for the title of HRE in 1519. All was not
i. Pope Gregory XI returned to Rome in 1378—and died within a few months.
1. New Italian pope = Urban VI
a. Promised to reform College of Cardinals (mainly French)
b. The popes at Rome were Urban VI (1378–89), Boniface IX (1389–1404),
Innocent VII (1404–6), and Gregory XII (1406–15).
ii. French Cardinals elected a 2
pope that lived in Avignon (Clement VII). Supported by French
monarch Charles V (followed by Benedict XIII)
i. Agustín de Iturbide
A conservative Creole, he spent years fighting Mexican revolutionaries. He was alarmed
when Spain created it's constitution. He led rebels and helped Mexicans gain their
j. Simón Bolivar a military and political leader who admired the French and American
Revolutions. He too was exiled from Haiti twice.
1. Describe the rebellion in Prussia. What was the outcome?…
Since Henrietta was Catholic, Charles I’s heir, the person next in line for the throne,
would be raised Catholic, but England took an oath rejecting Catholicism. Another reason people
didn’t like Charles is because he kept dismissing and calling back parliament whenever he felt like it,
and he doesn’t follow the laws. Charles I wanted to go to war with Spain, but he had no money.…
Absolutism is a form of government that is based on the sole and unrestricted control of a ruler, such as King Charles of England. As the government evolved, rising numbers of monarchs attempted to limit the amount of power one ruler could obtain, and in 1689, the English finally succeeded in doing so when King Will and Queen Mary take the throne. Yet, let’s go back around 60 years, when King Charles I of England is chosen for the throne.…
The most successful and influential colony during this time would have to be the Spanish or Spain.
In 1783 with the Treaty of Paris, England gave us our Independence. Spain initiated the first European Exploration and colonization of the new world, in which they explored and colonized 5/8’s of the new world. Spain also introduced Christianity to the new world, and the institution, economy and political infrastructures of the Catholic Church.…
This was made after the Spanish Succession Wars between Spain and Louis XIV of France.
War of Spanish Succession – A war which was fought because the European countries did not want Louis XIV’s heir to inherit both France and Spain
Treaty of Urecht – The most important Treaty, other than Westphalia which ended the Thirty Years War and helped established absolutism in France.…
Julius Nepos: Last Western emperor (in exile) (480)
Dismemberment of Western Roman Empire
Visigoths (SW Gaul, Spain)
Angles and Saxons (Britain) ‑> "England" ("Angle-land")
Franks (Northern Gaul) ‑> "France"
Vandals (North Africa)
So, it looks like the barbarians have “won”!…
Meanwhile Spain was coming together, with the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabel and the exposition of the Muslim moors, Spain looked westward
f. Columbus comes upon a new world
i. Now there was a hug shift in history with due to the new inventions in technology like the Mariner’s compass
ii. Christopher Columbus was an Italian sailor the sleeked the Spanish to give him 3 ships and a crew. They were unsuccessful until 1492 when they sighted an island in the Bahamas
Jacob Gertler Pd. 10
Section 1) Spain- Philip II
1) His father, Charles V retired, leaving Phillip II with Spain, the Spanish Netherlands, and the American colonies.
3) He had very bad trust issues, so he didn’t allow anyone to help him.
4) He conquers Portugal, broke the power of the Turkish in the Mediterranean
5) The empire had severe inflation, lost many valuable artisans and business people, and never developed a middle class.
6) He was deeply religious…