With the accession of Charles to the Spanish throne, Spain suddenly acquired large swathes of land in central and northern Europe (Austria, the Netherlands, Burgundy and chunks of Germany). In spite of a hefty inheritance received from his Spanish ancestors, Charles I of Hapsburgs exceeded his expenditures due to goals set by him as Holy Roman Emperor (HRE): commitment to Christendom, war with the Turks, fights with the French neighbours. To begin with one of Charles I goals was the commitment to Christendom. Christianity was now the common bond that held Spaniards together. Nevertheless, the religious conformity of baptized Jews and converted Muslims was frequently tested and there was widespread suspicion that their conversion was not genuine. Three years after Charles’s arrival, Spanish resentment at Flemish control erupted in the year long Revolt of the Comuneros (members of a popular communal movement). It didn’t help that Charles also requested money in pursuit of the office of Holy Roman Emperor (HRE). Spaniards feared that their country’s welfare would be subordinated to Charles’s obligations to defend the interests of the Catholic Church beyond Spain’s borders, and to some degree their fears were justified. Charles did become HRE (as Charles V) in 1519, and his priorities did extend beyond Spain. Indeed, of the 40 years that Charles ruled, he spent only 16 in Spain; in the last 13 years of his reign. The problems that stood against that plan were great. Charles always called for a crusade against the Turks, however his request was mainly ignored and some Christians, like the French, even allied with the Turks. France represented the first problem. Instead of feeling protected by its Christian neighbors, it felt dangerously flanked by Burgundy and Spain. After the peace of Madrid, Charles V set Francis free, trusting in his noble character. However Francis did not recognize his resuming of the war as a breaking of an oath, but rather he viewed this as an absolute political need. The fact that Charles never really understood the meaning of the Reformation also had a great impact. Instead of viewing the reformation as a new religious way of thinking, he just saw it as a revolt against the church. he didn’t set foot in the country at all. In addition, Charles won Spaniards over by identifying them increasingly with the mission of defending Catholicism. His struggle with the threat of heretical Protestants in Northern Europe and with Ottoman (Turkish) activities in the Mediterranean touched a common chord and recalled the crusading spirit of the Reconquista, which was still relatively fresh in the collective Spanish memory. But not all of Charles’s enemies were Protestants or Muslims. Catholic France, led by the youthful Francis I, was traditionally hostile to Aragón and challenged Charles’s claims to the duchy of Burgundy and the strategically placed duchy of Milan in northern Italy. In addition, Francis had a personal grudge against Charles, who had out-won him for the title of HRE in 1519. All was not
The Transformation of Western Civilization:
Section I: Foundations of Western Civilizations (Late Medieval Period)
A. Late Medieval Period
● The roots of some modern political tenets are found in the late medieval period
● Late medieval economic developments changed the class structure of Europe and led to a more modern
● The breakdown of the Catholic Church, and other late medieval disasters (plague, little ice age, etc.) began to…
Describe each term with at least 2 sentences:
A: political philosophy or view based on ideas of liberty and equality
A view of superiority for your own nation, a sense of individual national identity.
c. Louis Philippe
A: The distant cousin of Charles X and the leader of the July Revolution. He was
elected as a monarchy by popular vote by citizens. His rule was known as the July
Monarchy which eventually was overthrown in 1848.
Serbian leader who led the first rebellion against the Ottoman Empire…
the Stuart family monarchs were nothing like her. James I, Charles I, and James II all ruled
England at one point, and the caused the country many problems such as religion, politics, and taxes.
The Stuart family wasn’t good rulers, and England wanted a change, so they got William and Mary of
Netherlands to come and take over, which was the beginning of the Glorious Revolution.
James I was the first of the family to take the throne after Queen Elizabeth died. The people of
England didn’t like James I for many reasons. One reason Puritans didn’t like James I because he…
Prices will increase, and ultimately interest rates will increase as well. In world history a great example of inflation is in the 16th century, when the Catholic King Philip II took over Spain. Throughout his reign, Spain’s wealth begins to dwindle due to several reasons. Declining monetary value had a great toll on Spain when silver imported from the Americas began to flood the economic market and the initial value of silver began to buy less things. In addition, the economy could not keep up with Spain’s…
influential colony during this time would have to be the Spanish or Spain.
In 1783 with the Treaty of Paris, England gave us our Independence. Spain initiated the first European Exploration and colonization of the new world, in which they explored and colonized 5/8’s of the new world. Spain also introduced Christianity to the new world, and the institution, economy and political infrastructures of the Catholic Church. Spain was the first ones to develop a trade route which was between Europe…
Once taken, Calais could be resupplied and defended easily by sea. But the defenses which made Calais attractive to Edward also made it difficult to seize.
Who won- English
Orleans- Between October 1428 and May 1429
Cause- Charles furnished Joan with a small army, and on April 27, 1429, she set out for Orleans, besieged by the English since October 1428. On April 29, as a French sortie distracted the English troops on the west side of Orleans, Joan entered unopposed by its…
preform financial, judicial and policing tasks for the government
Louis XIV “The Sun King” – Absolute monarch of France who controlled nobility by controlling their jealously. He no longer trusts the nobles due to the Fronde.
“L’etat. C’est moi” – “I am the state.” Words believed to be spoken by Louis XIV and demonstrate his absolutism.
Fronde – Rebellion of the Nobility when Louis XIV was a boy. This made it that the young king would never trust nobles.
Corvee’ – used by the French and the Russians…
"Great Persecution" (303‑311)
Battle of the Milvian Bridge (312)
chi‑rho sign (Christogram)
Julian "The Apostate" (361-363): denies Christianity
Last pagan emperor: killed by a Christian soldier
Valentinian I (364-375)
Last Golden Age of the roman Empire
Split of Empire into western half and eastern half with his brother
Triumph of Christianity
Theodosius “The Great” (379-395)
Christianity the only legal religion (392)
I. New world beginnings
a. The shaping of north America
i. In the beginning, all the continents were together
ii. Most mountain ranges were formed before the split
iii. Canadian shield anchored north America
iv. The ice age was held about 2 million years ago
v. The great lakes were formed from melting glaciers
b. Peopling in the Americas
i. Most people came to the Americas through the land bridge created by the low sea levels
ii. As the glaciers melted the sea levels rose again, eliminating…
Jacob Gertler Pd. 10
Section 1) Spain- Philip II
1) His father, Charles V retired, leaving Phillip II with Spain, the Spanish Netherlands, and the American colonies.
3) He had very bad trust issues, so he didn’t allow anyone to help him.
4) He conquers Portugal, broke the power of the Turkish in the Mediterranean
5) The empire had severe inflation, lost many valuable artisans and business people, and never developed a middle class.
6) He was deeply religious…