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1. Define what is meant by the terms ‘self-report’, ‘proxy report’ and ‘recall’. Self-report is when a participant answers questions about the physical activity in which they participated, proxy report is when an observer completes questions about a participant, and recall is when the participant recounts what they have done.
2. Describe the difference between a recall and a diary. A recall is when you recount something from memory, and a diary is actually writing down and keeping track of the physical activity.
3. Identify the sources of error associated with questionnaires and survey instruments. Social desirability bias can come into account and make people lie about what they have done. Inability to make correct recall can also cause error.
4. Explain why physical activity surveys are often given to participants before and after a physical activity intervention program. So that the difference in fitness from before and after can be seen easily.
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1. Define what is meant by a setting. Typically a geographical area or institution containing a large ‘captive’ audience where health messages can be delivered efficiently.
2. Explain how a settings approach can be used for health promotion. It takes on a social ecological perspective, and recognises that contextual and environmental factors influence health. It uses problem solving to address the range of physical, social, organisational and culture factors influencing health in a setting. Settings are therefore efficient in reaching target groups, and changing social systems, not just individuals.
3. List possible settings in which intervention strategies could be applied. Home settings, school settings, community settings and workplace settings.
4. List the possible settings the World Health Organization had identified. Cities, villages, municipalities and communities, schools, workplaces, markets, homes, islands, hospital, prisons, universities ageing.
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1. Identify the characteristics of a school setting that make it a suitable setting for intervention. A school setting had the potential to reach all children for some time in their life, and particularly provides an opportunity to reach inactive children. Compared to usual interventions, school-based interventions are moderately effective in promoting physical activity in children and adolescent girls. Children who participate in school-based interventions are significantly more active during adulthood than those who did not participate.
2. Outline the difficulties experienced in applying intervention strategies in a school setting. The crowded curriculum can sometimes be a barrier to providing opportunities for physical activity on a regular basis. In secondary schools, it can be difficult to access and intervene as even more pressure is place on students and teachers. As a result, a substantial decline in participation could occur.
3. List three important areas policy-makers should focus on in education to raise activity levels. Ban all staff from using physical activity as a form of punishment. Ensure the recommended tome for physical education and sport is met by timetabling. Allocate funds for staff professional development in areas of physical activity promotion and physical education.
4. Identify the characteristics of a workplace setting that make it a suitable setting for intervention. Put up posters up in staff areas about the consequences of inactivity, the health benefits of regular physical activity or how to perform specific exercise such as stretches. Have newsletters, booklets, pamphlets, brochures, flyers, bulletin-boards available in a variety of places about physical activity programs at work in the local area. Put up posters in staff areas displaying how to exercise while sitting at a desk or standing at the photocopier.