CharlotteAlbertie Literature Review Essay

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Discovering the Cause and Effect that Autism Spectrum Disorder Have on Children
Charlotte Albertie
University of Phoenix

Discovering the Cause and Effect that Autism Spectrum Disorder Have on Children

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a condition that is a complex brain development disorders. This disorder can hinder you social skills, makes it difficult to communicate with others and also creates a learning curve. The earlier the diagnosis of the disorder the better for the child. This review will focus on early detention and possible causes of the disorder and how the child is affected. There was a study preformed in Denmark from 1996-2006 showed that prenatal drugs could have the effect on the development of the disorder. An estimate of 655, 615 children, 5437 had autism spectrum disorder. During pregnancy 2,644 was exposed to antiepileptic drugs and 508 was exposed to valproate. Overall, the 508 children exposed to valproate had an absolute risk of 4.42% for autism disorder. (Smith & Brown 2014) Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are difficult to detect in children under three years old. This may be due to several factors. It is hard to observe until the child is placed in a setting where they are able to interact more with their peers. Although difficult to detect, the average age which care givers first express concern is around 17 months. Average age of diagnosis is much later usually at the age of four (Vig & Jedrysek, 1999). There is some arguments that ASD could be inherited, According to YU, Chahrour, and Coulter (2013) Despite significant heritability of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), their extreme genetic heterogeneity has proven challenging for gene discovery. Studies of primarily simplex families have implicated de novo copy number changes and point mutations, but are not optimally designed to identify inherited risk alleles. We apply whole-exome sequencing (WES) to ASD families enriched for inherited causes due to consanguinity and find familial ASD associated with biallelic mutations in disease genes”. After testing three families, The first family had three children with ASD and two unaffected the
Discovering the Cause and Effect that Autism Spectrum Disorder Have on Children

parents were first cousins. The second family was found to have three diagnosed and three undiagnosed the parents were first cousins. The third family the parents were double first cousins, the first four children was affected and the fifth was not (YU, Chahrour, & Coulter, 2013). Those experiments shows that it may be some genetic reasoning behind why some children develop ASD. What is learned about ASD is that it affects three main core domains, your social behavior, language development, and repetitive behaviors and restrictive interests. There are also other behavioral and neurological abnormalities. The child could develop sleep disturbances, motor abnormalities, and gastrointestinal symptoms (Peñagarikano & Geschwin, 2012). With ASD affect social behavior it could be hard for the child to fit in with other children. A child with ASD nutritional value may also be different from a child that do not suffer with the disorder. Studies have shown that kids with ASD consumed less calcium and more vitamin B6 and