Elements are more than one hundred substances that cannot be chemically interconverted or broken down into simpler substances and are primary constituents of matter. Each element is distinguished by its atomic number, i.e., the number of protons in the nuclei of its atom, also known as the basic unit of a chemical element. Protons are subatomic particles, which are particles smaller than an atom. Electrons, and neutrons are also examples of subatomic particles but they all have different charges. A proton has a positive charge, an electron has a negative charge, and a neutron has no charge. Molecules, also known as groups of atoms bonded together, form chemical compounds that take part in a chemical reaction. Molecules use bonds to form into compounds. An ionic bond is a chemical bond in which the atom transfers electrons while a covalent bond is a chemical bond in which the atoms share electrons. A chemical formula is a way of expressing the information about what makes up the compound. Two examples of compounds are organic compounds, and inorganic compounds. Organic compounds are made up of the elements carbon and hydrogen, while inorganic compounds have either of the elements, hydrogen and carbon. Macromolecules also known as “big molecules,” are made from thousands or even hundreds of thousands of even smaller molecules. Four examples of macromolecules are proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids. Carbohydrates are made up of monosaccharides, simple sugar molecules that…
Traditional deffintion of organic chemistry Chemistry of compounds found in living species (organisms) Modern deffiniton of organic chemistry Study of carbon compounds (just because it contains carbon doesn’t make in organic
Torbern Bergman (1770) expressed the difference between organic and inorganic
(living v. nonliving) Antoine Lavoisier (1780’s) first table of elements, organic always contains C, usually H, often O & N
Michel Chevreal (1816) converted one organic compound into another then seprated…
Ibuprofen is also known as: Brufen, Motrin, Dolgit, Liptan, Nuprin, and Butylenin. Its Molecular Formula is C13H18O2 and its molecular weight is 206.28082. The compound is a small organic compound composed of thirteen carbon atoms, eighteen hydrogen atoms, and two oxygen atoms. At standard temperature and pressure it is a crystalline solid with a white/off-white color. Ibuprofen also has acidic properties. Ibuprofen is used for relieving pain, reducing inflammation, and alleviating fever. Ibuprofen…
Compounds And Bonding
October 6, 2014
How Elements Combine: Ionic Compounds
1. Metals combine with non-metals in many compounds
2. Write the name of the metal first and the non-metal second
3. Change the ending of the non-metal (the second element) to "IDE"
4. Each atom has a specific number of bonds it can form
5. Atoms will combine and either give or receive electrons to make their outer shells stable or "happy" forming ions
6. These ions attract one another forming stable…
analyzed using the method of melting point determinations. This was done using the MelTemp apparatus, to analyze and observe both the crude and purified products.
The experimental procedure used in this experiment was outlined in the CHEM 123L lab manual, 2013, experiment #1. All the steps were followed without deviation.
Taken from data sheet
Volume of Water used: 32 mL
Temperature of water: 67 degrees Celsius
Name of substance/ object being measured…
Define enantiomer and diastereomer
What are properties of each? How can enantiomers be distinguished?
Be able to identify chiral centers in organic molecules, and assign R/S configuration to them
Problems 7.33, 7.39, 7.40, 7.43, 7.47
Be able to use stereochemical descriptors in the nomenclature of organic compounds
Define optical rotation. What experimental parameters influence the optical rotation?
Do problems 7.44, 7.46
Write the equation that defines specific rotation…
Experiment four: Synthesis of Salicylic Acid from Wintergreen Oil
Organic chemistry 331
Lab of 10/8/13
Abstract: Methyl salicylate is used as a flavoring because of its pleasant penetrating odor. Methyl salicylate was heated under reflux with the addition of NAOH as a solvent and cooling the mixture with H2SO4. Then the product was purified and the mass of the product weighed 2.6914g and the melting points of the purified product ranged from 141-145 degrees C and the mixed product (salicylic…
* N is the number of carbon atoms
* Normal alkanes
* Unbranched alkanes
* N- alkanes
* Methylene Group
* A –CH2—
* Homologous series
* Is a group of organic chemical compounds, usually listed in order of increasing size, that have a similar structure (and hence also similar properties) and whose structures differ only by the number of CH2 units in the main carbon chain.
2.2 Nomenclature of Organic Compounds
* International Union…
In chemistry, we divide compounds into two kinds, one is called ionic compounds and the other one is called molecular compounds (covalent compounds). Specifically, an ionic compound is a compound that ions are held together in a lattice structure by ionic bonds; a molecule compound is a compound that two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds. Due to the different form of bonds, different compounds have different properties. For example, ionic compounds are often hard; have high melting…
material that gave off a gas? (see p. 57 of text)
List two ways you could classify the gas that was given off? (see p. 57 of text)
a) Pure substance
List two ways you could classify water?(see p. 57 of text)
a) Pure substance
List two ways you could classify the acid? (see p.57 of text)
a) Pure substance
Two other methods of physical separation that we did not use are distillation and chromatography…
Potentially Hazardous Products
Product Category: Cosmetics
1. Organic Chemicals used in Cosmetics:
The first organic chemical that I researched that is in cosmetics is 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methylphenol (IUPAC name), or more commonly known as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The organic compound BHT is most often used in lipsticks and moisturizers, and is also used in smaller quantities is several other cosmetics.
The second organic chemical that I researched that is in cosmetics is 2,2'-Iminodiethanol…