• Nature science divides into two broad categories:
– biological science: living things
– physical science: nonliving
Definition of Chemistry:
• Chemistry is the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter, the processes that matter undergoes, and energy changes that accompany these processes.
Branches of Chemistry
organic chemistry inorganic chemistry physical chemistry analytical chemistry
Branches of chemistry:
• 1. Organic chemistry: the study of most carbon-containing compound
• 2. Inorganic chemistry: the study of most non-organic substances.
• Example: [Co(NH3)6]Cl3
• 3. physical chemistry: study properties and matters change that relates to energy.
• Often use principles or concepts of physics such as motion, energy, force, time, thermodynamics. ex: study surface tension in liquids, reaction rate, intermolecular forces….
• 4. Analytical chemistry: to identify components and composition of matters. – Separation
• 5. Biochemistry: to study the substances and processes occurring in living things.
• Example: Proteins, DNA,
• 6. the use of mathematics and computers to understand the principles behind observed chemical behavior and to design and predict the properties of new compound.
• Ex: quantum chemistry, molecule modeling
• Schrödinger equation describes the quantum state of a physical system changes in time.
• 7. Nuclear chemistry is the study of how subatomic particles come together and make nuclei.
• The field of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes and nuclear properties.
• 8. material chemistry is the study of the nature, behavior, and use of materials applied to science and technology. What are the differences?
• Basic research: increase knowledge, curiosity to know what, why, and how.
• Applied research: has a purpose (to solve a problem). Desire to solve a specific problem • Technological development: production, and use products to improve our life.
• These three often overlap. New finding leads to applications, result in new technologies.
Ex: knowledge of crystals and light, develop lasers, then the pulses of light from lasers can be sent through optical fibers. Telephone, cable, internet develop.
1.2 Matter and its properties • Mass and Matter:
– Mass is a measure of the amount of matter.
– Matter is anything has mass and take up space (volume).
• Matters comes in many forms. The fundamental building blocks of matter are atoms and molecules.
Atom, element, compound • Atom: the smallest unit of an element that contains the chemical identity of that element.
• Element: a pure substance that cannot break down into simpler, stable substances and is made of one type of atom • Compound: a substance can be broken down into simpler stable substances. (made from more than
• Chemists use properties to distinguish
(identify) between substances or separate them.
• Extensive properties: depend on the amount – ex: volume, mass, energy
• Intensive properties: not depend on the amount
– ex: melting point, boiling point, density, electrical conductivity
Physical & Chemical properties • Physical properties is a characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance. ex: melting point, boiling point
• Chemical properties: the ability to undergo changes that transform into different substance.
– iron metal rusted
Physical & Chemical changes
• Physical change is a change does not involve a change in the identity of the substance
– ex: water become ice or steam (change of state) • Chemical changes (chemical reactions): a change that converts one or more substances into