February 16, 2015
Step 1. Converting copper metal to copper nitrate. 1. Cut and weigh of copper wire until approximately 0.5g. 2. Record mass. 3. Place in a clean, dry 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask. 4. Measure 4-5 mL of concentrated nitric acid in a graduated cylinder. 5. In a fume hood, add the acid to the copper until it dissolves. 6. Swirl contents to dissolve copper. 7. If after 5 minutes it hasn't dissolved, gently warm on a hot plate or add 1-2 mL of nitric acid. 8. Swirl until completely dissolved. 9. Record any changes. 10. Dilute with 100 mL of water.
Step 2. Forming sold copper hydroxide from copper nitrate. 1. Add 30 mL of 3.0 M sodium hydroxide to solution from step 1. 2. Place about 1cm of stirring rod into solution. Then touch the end to an ~ 2cm piece of red litmus paper. 3. If paper turns blue, proceed with next step. 4. If not, add 1 mL of sodium hydroxide and test again. 5. Record any changes.
Step 3. Converting copper hydroxide to copper oxide. 1. Add 2 or 3 boiling chips to liquid from step 2. 2. Heat liquid just to boiling. 3. Allow to cool. 4. Record changes. 5. Filter contents of the flask, collect in another 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask. Use a wash bottle of water to make sure all of solid is washed out. 6. Wash the solid on the filter paper thoroughly with water. Use at least 5 mL.
Step 4. Returning CU^2+ ions into solution. 1. Place a clean 250 mL beaker under stem of funnel. 2. Pour 15 mL of 6.0 M sulfuric acid onto solid in the filter paper in the funnel. 3. Allow liquid to drain, dissolving the solid copper oxide. 4. If all the solid does not dissolve after all the liquid has passed through, place another clean 250 mL beaker under the stem of the funnel. 5. Pour the liquid through the filter paper and funnel again. 6. Repeat process. 7. Record changes.
Step 5. Recovering the elemental copper. If possible, the next step should be performed in the fume hood. 1. Add 4 or 5 of concentrated hydrochloric acid and ~ several 1 in squares of aluminum foil in the beaker. 2. Stir reaction. 3. If the color of the solution does not disappear when reaction appears to have stopped, add more aluminum foil. 4. Record changes. 5. Once colorless, decent solution in beaker or flask. 6. Add 20 mL of water to