Chemistry 231 Chapter 1 Notes Essay

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Taylor Miller
Chemistry Chapter 1 Questions:
Atoms: submicroscopic particles that constitute the fundamental building blocks of matter
Molecules: when two or more atoms combined together
-molecules are common in nature
Chemistry: science that tries to understand the behavior of matter by studying atoms and molecules
Scientific knowledge is based on observations and experiments. Plato believed that knowledge came from reasoning and thinking about the ideal world
The scientific method is scientific method used to find the answer to a hypothesis or question which includes the use of experiments and observations as well as theories and testing. Law of Conservation of Mass: In a chemical reaction, matter is neither created or destroyed
Matter: anything that occupies space
Three states of matter:
Solid: molecules and atoms are packed closely together in fixed positions. Can be crystalline or amorphous (fixed volume and shape)
Liquid: packed together about as closely as a solid but are free to move around (fixed volume but not a fixed shape
Gas: large amount of room between molecules and are free to move relative to one another, this makes gas compressible Pure Substance: made up of one component and doesn’t vary throughout (ex: water, table salt)
Heterogeneous Mixtures: the composition varies from one region of the mixture to the other (ex: wet sand)
Homogenous Mixtures: a mixture with the same composition throughout (ex: sweetened tea)
Elements cannot be broken down into simpler substances but a compound is made up of two or more elements. (Hydrogen; Water) Physical Change: a change that change only state or appearance (water evaporating)
Chemical Change: a change that alters the composition of matter (metal rusting)
Physical Property: something a substance displays without changing it’s composition (color, smell)
Chemical Property: something a substance displays only by changing it’s composition via a chemical change (flammability)
Energy: the capacity to do work
Work: the action of force through a distance
Kinetic Energy: energy associated with motion
Potential Energy: energy associated with position or composition
-when an object is not moving it has potential energy but as soon as it’s put in motion (ex: if you drop an object) it has kinetic energy
Thermal Energy: energy associated with the temperature of an object
Law of the Conservation of Energy: The idea the energy is neither created nor destroyed
Units are used to specify measurements if they are written wrong then the results can be disastrous
Scientists use the International System of Units (SI Units) which is based on the metric system
Units commonly used in chemistry are: meter, kilogram, second, and kelvin
Mass is the measure of the quantity of matter within the object, while the weight is the measure of the gravitational pull Fahrenheit Celsius Kelvin
-32: Water freezes
-212: Water boils at sea level
-72: Room temperature -0: Water freezes
-100: Water boils
-22: Room temperature -Measure of the average kinetic energy
-273K: Water freezes
-373K: Water boils
˚C=˚F-321.8 ; K= ˚C+273.15Prefix Multipliers: change the value