Review Questions for Ch. 1 – Matter and Change:
1. Define chemistry. Define organic chemistry
Chemistry is a physical science and as the study of matter and changes in matter.
Organic Chemistry is the study of most carbon containing compounds.
2. What is a physical property? What is a chemical property?
Physical property—a characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance
3. Chemical property—the ability of a substance to undergo a change that transforms it into a different substance
4. Identify the following as physical or chemical change or physical or chemical property:
a. melting ice - PC k. boiling point - PP
b. milk souring - CC l. texture - PP
c. silver tarnishing - CC m. reactivity - CP
d. burning wood - CC n. density - PP
e. changing state - PC o. crystallization - PC
f. distillation of alcohol - PC p. a leaf changes color - CC
g. the mass and the color of an object – PP q. sanding wood - PC
h. changes that alter the identity of a substance – CC r. melting ice - PC
i. peach spoiling - CC s. bracelet turning your wrist green - CC
j. copper bowl tarnishing - CC t. glue gun melting a glue stick - PC 5. What is an extensive physical property? What is an intensive physical property?
Extensive property—a property that depends on the amount of matter is present.
Intensive property—a property that does not depend on the amount of matter present
6. Identify the following as extensive properties or intensive properties:
a. Mass - EP
b. Density - IP
c. Color – IP
d. boiling point - IP
e. volume - EP
f. length – EP
6. What are the evidences of a chemical change?
Change in color, heat or light produced, gas produced, precipitant formed
7. Define a solid, a liquid, and a gas.
Solids have a definite shape and volume, liquids have no definite shape and take the shape of the container but have a definite volume, and gases have no definite shape or volume
8. What is a fluid?
Fluids are classified as such because their particles will easily slide past each other. Ex: gas, liquid
9. What is the difference between the separation of mixtures and the separation of compounds?
Mixtures can be separated by physical means. Ex: salt and sand—dissolve the salt in water, filter to separate the salt water from the sand, evaporate the water to recover the sand.
Compounds must be separated through a chemical reaction. Ex: water—must be electrolyzed to decompose it into hydrogen and oxygen.
10. Define a period.
Period—horizontal row on the periodic table
11. Define a group.
Group—vertical column on the periodic table
12. What do the elements in a group hold in common?
Elements in a group on the periodic table share common chemical and physical properties due to common patterns in their valence electron configurations.
13. Where are the metals, nonmetals, and metalloids (semi-metals) located on the periodic table?
Metals are located on the left-hand side of the periodic table. Nonmetals are located on the right-hand side of the periodic table. Metalloids border the zigzag line that separates the metals from the nonmetals on the periodic table.
14. What are the characteristics of a metal?
Metals are malleable, ductile, conduct heat and electricity, and exhibit tensile strength and luster. Metals become cations in ionic compounds, and there are more elements that are metals than nonmetals on the periodic table.
15. What are the characteristics of a non-metal?
Nonmetals have lower conductivity, tend to be gases at room temperature, become anions in ionic compounds, and there are fewer elements that are nonmetals than metals on the periodic table.
16. What are the characteristics of a metalloid?
Metalloids exhibit characteristics of both metals and nonmetals. They are semiconductors of electricity and because