Nonpolar Molecule- A molecule that has a symmetrical shape and a symmetrical charge distribution, such as F2, CCl4 or CO2
Element- A substance that cannot be decomposed by chemical change
All known elements are listed in the Periodic Table.
Ionic Bond- A bond resulting from the transfer of an electron from one atom to another
An ionic bond is formed by the transfer of one or more electrons from metals to nonmetals.
Ionic bonds may also form between ions that were formed in a previous reaction.
Ionic solids have high melting points and they do not conduct electricity
Molecule- The smallest particle of an element or compound capable of independent existence and formed by covalently bonded atoms in a definite ratio
A molecular compound can be decomposed by a chemical change.
Atomic Structure- An atom consists of two major regions: a central nucleus, and outer shells. Atoms differ in the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and in the configuration of electrons surrounding the nucleus in energy levels or shells. In a neutral atom, the number of protons in the nucleus equals the number of electrons in the shells.
Atomic Mass- The weighted average mass of the naturally occurring isotopes of an element. This average is weighted according to the proportions in which the isotopes occur.
The mass of a neutral atom, atomic mass, is measured in atomic mass units, based upon the atomic mass of carbon-12 equal to precisely 12.000 atomic mass units
Network Solid- A solid consisting of covalently bonded atoms linked in a network which extends throughout the sample with an absence of simple discrete particles.
Generally, network solids are hard, electrical insulators, poor conductors of heat, and have high melting points.
Examples include diamond and asbestos.
Chemical Bond- A chemical bond results from the simultaneous attraction of electrons between two particles; a force of attraction between particles (atoms or ions) formed when electrons are shared or transferred from one particle to another.
Examples: single bond (–) one pair of electrons; double bond (=) two pairs of electrons; triple bond () three pairs of electrons.
The electrons involved in bond formation may be transferred from one atom to another (ionic bond), or may be shared equally (nonpolar covalent bond) or unequally (polar covalent bond) between two atoms.
Covalent Bond- A chemical bond formed when two atoms share a pair of electrons. If the difference in electronegativiy of the two atoms is less than 1.7, the