Essay on Chemistry: Covalent Bond and Free Moving Electrons

Submitted By Ivamsis1
Words: 2205
Pages: 9

Identify data sources, gather, process and analyse information from secondary sources to identify the industrial separation processes used on a mixture obtained from the biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere or atmosphere and use the evidence available to:

Identify the properties of the mixture used in its separation

Identify the products of separation and their uses

Discuss issues associated with wastes from processes used

|Sphere |Biosphere |
|Mixture to be separated |Olive oil and olive flesh/seed |
|Products of separation and uses |Olive oil is very versatile and is used for; cooking, skin, hair, nails, lips etc. |
|Properties of components used to separate the|Olive oil is less dense than water and can be separated through centrifugation and/or decanting. |
|mixture and refine the final product |Olive oil is an immiscible solution. |
|Extraction procedure |Crushing/grinding |
| |The fruit is first crushed in a metal hammer mill to produce a paste, this separates some of the oil. |
| |Beating |
| |Water is then added to the paste to remove more oil from cells. Salt is also used to assist in osmotic |
| |breakdown of the cells and encourage the release of oil. |
| |Centrifuging |
| |The mixture is then placed in a horizontal centrifuge and spun at high speed. The light oil forms the |
| |upper, inner layer, and water and heavier fruit fragments forms the outer layers |
| |The inner, floating oil layer continuously overflows a weir and is collected through a separate threshold.|
| |The water is then removed by rotating internal scrolls through a separate exit. The pulp phase is |
| |discharged using rotating internal scrolls |
|Issues associated with wastes |The pulp waste contains about 6 % oil, as the process has become refined this number has been reduced from|
| |an even figure. higher |
| |Some extraction facilities have implemented solvent extraction to remove some of this oil. |
| |In other countries, the dried pulp waste is used as a home fuel, mulch, fertiliser or animal feed. |

|Sphere |Hydrosphere |
|Mixture to be separated |Salt from Seawater |
|Products of separation and uses |In addition to cooking and preservation,