Synthesis of Methyl Salicylate Synthesis is the construction of complex chemical compounds from simpler ones. It is the process by which many substances important to daily life can be obtained. It is applied to all types of chemical compounds, but most syntheses are done with organic compounds such as the ones used in our labs, Carboxylic Acid and Alcohol. Esterification is the name of the reaction in which two reactants, which in our case are the Carboxylic acid and the alcohol, form an ester. Esters are used very often in organic chemistry and biological materials, and also if reacted correctly, have a pleasant odor. Due to this characteristic, Esters are very important to all kinds of taste and scent businesses. In our lab, in order to achieve the best possible outcome of our ester, we were introduced to two new techniques: Refluxing and the use of Catalysts. As the rate of the chemical reaction can change according to the temperature, we were to use catalysts to speed up or slow down the rate of the reaction if needed. The catalyst that we used in our experiment was a drop of sulfuric acid. After the catalyst and the reactants were combined, we were required to heat the mixture and allow it to boil gently for a short time. While we heated it, I noticed that the mixture bubbled vigorously and if we heated it too long in the same place, smoke arose from the glass rod. I also observed in other groups that if they heated it too long, their glass rod would bend and twist out of shape. To make sure the majority if not all of the mixture was contained in the test tube, we used a method called refluxing which is the process, in which a reaction mixture is maintained at a gentle boil without loss of material. Our refluxing was done by attaching a condenser to the top of the reaction test tube, allowing any evaporating liquid to cool, recondense, and drip back into the reaction vessel. Once all these procedures have been completed, you should know that the reaction was successful by the odor of the mixture and the amount of it you have left. Our odor smelled of really strong, bad mint probably due to our overheating mistake. We were once really close to having the rubber stopper pop out of the test tube because we heated it too long in one place so the mixture bubbled and released bursts of gas. Our…
1. Which type of compound usually has higher melting points: ionic compounds or covalent compounds? What is the reason for this difference in melting points? (3 points)
Ionic compounds tend to have higher melting and boiling points than covalent compounds. This is because ionic compounds form ionic bonds, which are much stronger than covalent bonds, and thus are harder to break apart, by means of melting.
1 Do ionic compounds conduct electricity as: (3 points)
1. Solids? No, they do…
In chemistry, you often use exponential notation, which is simply using exponents to express a number. Scientific notation is a specific form of exponential notation that uses a power of10 anda number between 1 and 10. Here's the format,
where A is between 1 and 10 and B is an integer:
A × 10 When you do calculations with measurements, you must make sure that your answer suggests no greater precision than was present in the original measurements. Here are some guidelines for writing your answers…
Student: Rene CantuDate: 10/30/14
Partner: Brandon MendezSection: 110
Group #: 10
Investigating Stoichiometry with Sodium Salt of Carbonic Acid
The Problem that was introduced in this lab is that we as a group were using stoichiometry to react different reactants of either sodium bicarbonate or sodium carbonate and hydrochloric acid to produce sodium chloride and carbon dioxide. The problem is that we don’t know what we are reacting at each time: sodium bicarbonate…
With the ability to predict the intermolecular forces in different molecules, you should be able to use the IMF and understand how it relates to chromatography. The purpose of this lab is to be able to understand the procedure of chromatography, by reconstructing a specific chromatograph.
Make a hole in the center of the filter paper with the tip of the pencil
Make dots, each with a different marker, around the center of…
Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to become familiar with the measuring equipment in the lab, figuring out what piece of equipment is best for measuring and to become familiar with finding density, mass, volume and area.
Conclusion: My conclusion of the data is that beakers give you a very poor measurement and should mainly be used for pouring. Burets, pipets, and graduated cylinders should be used for more tedious measurements.
Future Actions: The teacher should…
Kingdom: Animalia (multicellular parasites)
Phylum: Platyhelminthes (flatworms)
Class: Trematoda (flukes)
Genus Species: Schistosoma japonicum
Disease: Schistosomiasis is an infection caused by Schistosoma japonicum that causes a skin reaction known as “swimmer’s itch”. It remains a significant health problem in lake and marshland regions.
Kingdom: Animalia (multicellular parasites)
Renee Hairston POST-LAB 9/11/14
Determination of Unknown Density Lab
Lab Partner: Kelsee Rieghman
During this particular lab experiment I expect to determine the density of both a liquid and a solid to find out what the unknown substances are by matching it’s density with one of the densities of the 3 metals listed in our packet, and also determine what the unknown liquid will be based on its density and the given information in our packet.
General Chemistry 1411.115
Lab Partners: Kyle Winfield, Joey Balaszi, Connor Borman
October 26 2014
INVESTIGATING STOICHIOMETRY WITH SODIUM SALTS OF CARBONIC ACID
The purpose of this experiment was to investigate chemical stoichiometry. The experiment conducted of combining sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) with hydrochloric acid (HCl) to produce sodium chloride, water and carbon dioxide. Balanced chemical reaction of HCl with sodium bicarbonate…
The pKa of an Unknown Acid-Base Indicator
By: Josephine Hong
Lab Instructor: Yue Zhang
Due: April 5, 2013
Submitted: April 5, 2013
In this lab, the pKa of the unknown indicator of expression was determined both qualitatively and quantitatively. To verify our procedures, the experiment was tested using a known indicator, bromocresol green. Qualitatively, we used the color change of the solution with indicator to obtain the pKa value solely using a pH meter. Quantitatively…