Food chemistry is important in food science because it gives a better understanding of food, it allows to create better food through applying science and technology. It also explains food safety, healthfulness, quality, cost, if it is convenient and the diversity of the products.
Food chemisrty involves the application of biochemistry, organic, pchem and analytical chemistry to improve the understanding and manipulation of foods and their components.
The importance of food chemistry is to ensure food quality, nutrition and safety.
Food is created in two methods: the traditional method and technology method. The advantages of using technology to make food are: save time, cost, more production, better appearance
The process of making food goes through a hierarchical structure that include ingredients (water, carbs, proteins, lipids, mineral ect) which are in the molecular level; the is the process to make the product where from the molecular structure, it goes to structural where the actual food is made and physicochemical. This includes molecular organization, structure formations and forces involved. The last process is the quality of the food which includes the taste, texture, appearance, shelf life and nutrition.
Food architectural includes:
Function: nutrition, it is healthy or not and it is good for the lifestyle
Aesthetics: appearance, texture, flavor and shelf life
Constraints: it is legal to sell, it is economically for the company producing it and for consummators, how long it needs to be produced and stay in stores, and the context of it ingredients.
The building materials are: phases ( oil, water, air), biopolymers (peptides, proteins, oligosaccharides, polysaccharide), particles (droplets, bubbles, crystals, complexes), biological objects (cells, granules, fibers), association colloids (micelles, vesicles, bilayers)
Food is prepared by intermolecular and colloidal interactions such as:
Covalent bonds – chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms. It is affected by electronegativity of the connected atoms. Two atom with equal electronegativity makes nonpolar covalent bond; unequal relationship creates polar covalent bonds.
Electrostatic interactions – the electric force between two charged objects. Opposite charges attract.
Salt bridge – noncovalent interactions. It’s a combination of hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions.
Hygrogen bonding – electrostatic interaction between polar molecules that occurs when a hydrogen atom bound to highly electronegative atom.
Hydrophobic attraction – the tendency of nonpolar molecules to aggregate in aqueous solutions and water molecules. This attraction is water fearing.
VDW attraction – it’s an electrostatic attraction between opposite charges. It is a weak force of attraction.
Molecular characteristics include: size, shape, charge, polarity, rigidity/flexibility, interactions and reactivity.
Electrostatic interactions – includes ions and dipoles; are attractive/repulsive attractions; vary from short – long range and weak to strong.
VDW – include all molecules; are attractive forces, vary in the medium range and are weak attractions
Steric – include all molecules; are repulsive attractions, short range and strong attraction
Repulsion forces have a pair potential bigger than zero and attractive forces less than zero.
Electrostatic interaction occur between any molecular species that has a full or partial charge, such as ions or dipols.
Ion – ion have a strong strength; ion – dipole have medium strength and dipole – dipole have a weak strength.
Factors that influence electrostatic interactions are : pH, ionic strength and solvent
VDW starts from the polarization due to permanent or induced dipoles.
Molecular interactions are important for a particular system depend on molecular characteristics, such as charge and polarity
Total interaction is some of individual ones.
Hydrogen bonds – dipole – dipole VDW,