Over the past two years, the phrase “HIV cure” has flashed repeatedly across newspaper headlines. In March 2013, doctors from Mississippi reported that the disease had vanished in a toddler who was infected at birth. Four months later, researchers in Boston reported a similar finding in two previously HIV-positive men. All three were no longer required to take any drug treatments. The media heralded the breakthrough, and there was anxious optimism among HIV researchers. Millions of dollars of grant funds were earmarked to bring this work to more patients. But in December 2013, the optimism evaporated. HIV had returned in both of the Boston men. Then, just this summer, researchers announced the same grim results for the child from Mississippi. The inevitable questions mounted from the baffled public. Will there ever be a cure for this disease? As a scientist researching HIV/AIDS, I can tell you there’s no straightforward answer. HIV is a notoriously tricky virus, one that’s eluded promising treatments before. But perhaps just as problematic is the word “cure” itself. Science has its fair share of trigger words. Biologists prickle at the words “vegetable” and “fruit”—culinary terms which are used without a botanical basis—chemists wrinkle their noses at “chemical free,” and physicists dislike calling “centrifugal” a force—it’s not; it only feels like one. If you ask an HIV researcher about a cure for the disease, you’ll almost certainly be chastised. What makes “cure” such a heated word? HIV hijacks the body's immune system by attacking T cells. It all started with a promise. In the early 1980s, doctors and public health officials noticed large clusters of previously healthy people whose immune systems were completely failing. The new condition became known as AIDS, for “acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.” A few years later, in 1984, researchers discovered the cause—the human immunodeficiency virus, now known commonly as HIV. On the day this breakthrough was announced, health officials assured the public that a vaccine to protect against the dreaded infection was only two years away. Yet here we are, 30 years later, and there’s still no vaccine. This turned out to be the first of many overzealous predictions about controlling the HIV epidemic or curing infected patients. The progression from HIV infection to AIDS and eventual death occurs in over 99% of untreated cases—making it more deadly than Ebola or the plague. Despite being identified only a few decades ago, AIDS has already killed 25 million people and currently infects another 35 million, and the World Health Organization lists it as the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. HIV disrupts the body’s natural disease-fighting mechanisms, which makes it particularly deadly and complicates efforts to develop a vaccine against it. Like all viruses, HIV gets inside individual cells in the body and highjacks their machinery to make thousands of copies of itself. HIV replication is especially hard for the body to control because the white blood cells it infects, and eventually kills, are a critical part of the immune system. Additionally, when HIV copies its genes, it does so sloppily. This causes it to quickly mutate into many different strains. As a result, the virus easily outwits the body’s immune defenses, eventually throwing the immune system into disarray. That gives other obscure or otherwise innocuous infections a chance to flourish in the body—a defining feature of AIDS. Early Hope In 1987, the FDA approved AZT as the first drug to treat HIV. With only two years between when the drug was identified in the lab and when it was available for doctors to prescribe, it was—and remains—the fastest approval process in the history of the FDA. AZT was widely heralded as a breakthrough. But as the movie The Dallas Buyer’s Club poignantly retells, AZT was not the miracle drug many hoped. Early prescriptions often elicited toxic side-effects and…
Chemistry 245 Lab
Author: Kylie Bui
Team Members: Nhien Tran and Veronica Barrezueta
Introduction: the purpose of this lab was to purify an impure solid through the process of recrystallization through the help of hot gravity filtration and vacuum filtration. Recrystallization is done by dissolving solids to remove its impurities based on their differences in solubility. In this experiment, two main objectives include comparing the purities between the desired…
thermometer. The Si unit for temperature is Celsius.
Chemicals and Equipments: Red Food Dye 1ml, Isopropyl Alcohol 30ml, Sodium Chloride solution 30ml, balance, 3 Styrofoam cups, graduated cylinder 100ml, sunlight, marker, 5 medicine cups, metric ruler. Paper towels, graduated pipet, black sand, white sand, screw, clock, test tube, textbook, 2 thermometers, and water.
Activity 1 Measuring Length
1. Use ruler to measure length, width, and height
2. Record measurements in centimeters…
1 Chemical Foundations
1. Chemistry - study of composition, structure, + prop. of matter, processes that matter undergoes, + E in processes
2. Chemical - any subs. with a def. composition; matter is composed of dif. types of atoms; 1 subs. changes to another by reorganizing the way atoms are bonded
Chem. reaction - one or more subs. are converted into different subs.; atoms are re-organized
3. Law of Conservation of matter/mass/energy – matter/mass is neither created nor destroyed in chem…
Green Chemistry Unit:
Green Chemistry: is the creation of greener chemical products and processes that eliminate and reduce harmful wastes in the environment.
Principles of Green Chemistry:
1. Maximize Atom Economy: Synthesize the chemical so that few or no atoms are wasted.
2. Use Safer Solvents and Reaction Conditions: Use solvents that are safe if you have the opportunity.
3. Avoid Chemical Derivatives: Avoid using blocking agents because they can harmful chemical waste.
between organic and inorganic
Peter H.M. Budzelaar
A real example: the Monsanto Acetic Acid process
Introduction: what is organometallic chemistry, and why should you care?
Electron counting: the basis for understanding structure and reactivity
An overview of Main-group and Transition metal chemistry
Main group metal chemistry and "Umpolung"
Intermezzo: characterization of organometallic compounds
Transition metal chemistry: overview…
Discussion and Conclusion
The purpose of this lab was to demonstrate how to find out how the ionic compound can be determined experimentally. This lab dealt with balancing the charges of ions. The ionic compounds are atoms of different elements that combine with one another. The components of mixtures are either compound or elements. The lab was concerned with finding the ratio with the amount of drops we put which were 0.1m Copper (?) Chloride and PO (down) 4 (up) 3-, which was also the independent…
Chemistry C121- Elementary Chemistry I
Indiana University Northwest - Spring 2015
TEXT: Indiana University Northwest C121 Laboratory Manual Prentice Hall, New Jersey, Linda Wozneiwski, Indiana University Northwest.
SAFETY: Safety is a primary concern in this course. Make sure that you have read and understand the safety rules written in your lab text and that you understand the safety rules written in your lab text and that you understand any safety rules or guidelines given by your instructor…
Inorganic Chemistry (300899)
Experiment 3.4 Report
Preparation of Vanadium Acetylacetonate
Acetylacetone exists in two tautomeric forms Keto and enol. It is a weak acid and is mainly found in enol form. Acetyacetone is a bidentate ligand. The ligand binds…
A Level Chemistry
BB in Core and Additional Science or B in Chemistry and C in Maths. In addition, a D Grade in AS Chemistry is
needed to progress to the A Level.
Wainwright, Miss J Rigby
Teachers: Mrs V Bates, Mr A Conheeney, Mr N Barnet, Mr P Carter, Mrs J
Timetable Organisation: 5 periods of 1 hour length each week for two years, taught by 2 teachers. Students in Year 13 also have one hour of directed study
time each week.
Main Syllabus Area
A Level Chemistry…