Over the past two years, the phrase “HIV cure” has flashed repeatedly across newspaper headlines. In March 2013, doctors from Mississippi reported that the disease had vanished in a toddler who was infected at birth. Four months later, researchers in Boston reported a similar finding in two previously HIV-positive men. All three were no longer required to take any drug treatments. The media heralded the breakthrough, and there was anxious optimism among HIV researchers. Millions of dollars of grant funds were earmarked to bring this work to more patients. But in December 2013, the optimism evaporated. HIV had returned in both of the Boston men. Then, just this summer, researchers announced the same grim results for the child from Mississippi. The inevitable questions mounted from the baffled public. Will there ever be a cure for this disease? As a scientist researching HIV/AIDS, I can tell you there’s no straightforward answer. HIV is a notoriously tricky virus, one that’s eluded promising treatments before. But perhaps just as problematic is the word “cure” itself. Science has its fair share of trigger words. Biologists prickle at the words “vegetable” and “fruit”—culinary terms which are used without a botanical basis—chemists wrinkle their noses at “chemical free,” and physicists dislike calling “centrifugal” a force—it’s not; it only feels like one. If you ask an HIV researcher about a cure for the disease, you’ll almost certainly be chastised. What makes “cure” such a heated word? HIV hijacks the body's immune system by attacking T cells. It all started with a promise. In the early 1980s, doctors and public health officials noticed large clusters of previously healthy people whose immune systems were completely failing. The new condition became known as AIDS, for “acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.” A few years later, in 1984, researchers discovered the cause—the human immunodeficiency virus, now known commonly as HIV. On the day this breakthrough was announced, health officials assured the public that a vaccine to protect against the dreaded infection was only two years away. Yet here we are, 30 years later, and there’s still no vaccine. This turned out to be the first of many overzealous predictions about controlling the HIV epidemic or curing infected patients. The progression from HIV infection to AIDS and eventual death occurs in over 99% of untreated cases—making it more deadly than Ebola or the plague. Despite being identified only a few decades ago, AIDS has already killed 25 million people and currently infects another 35 million, and the World Health Organization lists it as the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. HIV disrupts the body’s natural disease-fighting mechanisms, which makes it particularly deadly and complicates efforts to develop a vaccine against it. Like all viruses, HIV gets inside individual cells in the body and highjacks their machinery to make thousands of copies of itself. HIV replication is especially hard for the body to control because the white blood cells it infects, and eventually kills, are a critical part of the immune system. Additionally, when HIV copies its genes, it does so sloppily. This causes it to quickly mutate into many different strains. As a result, the virus easily outwits the body’s immune defenses, eventually throwing the immune system into disarray. That gives other obscure or otherwise innocuous infections a chance to flourish in the body—a defining feature of AIDS. Early Hope In 1987, the FDA approved AZT as the first drug to treat HIV. With only two years between when the drug was identified in the lab and when it was available for doctors to prescribe, it was—and remains—the fastest approval process in the history of the FDA. AZT was widely heralded as a breakthrough. But as the movie The Dallas Buyer’s Club poignantly retells, AZT was not the miracle drug many hoped. Early prescriptions often elicited toxic side-effects and
thermometer. The Si unit for temperature is Celsius.
Chemicals and Equipments: Red Food Dye 1ml, Isopropyl Alcohol 30ml, Sodium Chloride solution 30ml, balance, 3 Styrofoam cups, graduated cylinder 100ml, sunlight, marker, 5 medicine cups, metric ruler. Paper towels, graduated pipet, black sand, white sand, screw, clock, test tube, textbook, 2 thermometers, and water.
Activity 1 Measuring Length
1. Use ruler to measure length, width, and height
2. Record measurements in centimeters…
A Level Chemistry
BB in Core and Additional Science or B in Chemistry and C in Maths. In addition, a D Grade in AS Chemistry is
needed to progress to the A Level.
Wainwright, Miss J Rigby
Teachers: Mrs V Bates, Mr A Conheeney, Mr N Barnet, Mr P Carter, Mrs J
Timetable Organisation: 5 periods of 1 hour length each week for two years, taught by 2 teachers. Students in Year 13 also have one hour of directed study
time each week.
Main Syllabus Area
A Level Chemistry…
of the metal (e.g., Cu metal in a solution of a soluble salt that releases Cu2+ or Cu+ into solution). In this micro-version of a voltaic cell, the half cell will be a small piece of metal placed into three drops of a solution on a piece of filter paper. The solution contains a cation of…
Use the web to answer the following questions. Include links to your resources for each answer. Once you have answered the questions upload the document to the appropriate assignment on School Loop.
1. What is environmental chemistry?
Environmental chemistry is the study of chemical processes occurring in the environment which are impacted by humankind's activities.
2. What are some questions that environmental chemists try to answer?…
between organic and inorganic
Peter H.M. Budzelaar
A real example: the Monsanto Acetic Acid process
Introduction: what is organometallic chemistry, and why should you care?
Electron counting: the basis for understanding structure and reactivity
An overview of Main-group and Transition metal chemistry
Main group metal chemistry and "Umpolung"
Intermezzo: characterization of organometallic compounds
Transition metal chemistry: overview…
Version 1.0: 0709
General Certificate of Education
Further Physical and Inorganic
June examination - 2009 series
Mark schemes are prepared by the Principal Examiner and considered, together with the
relevant questions, by a panel of subject teachers. This mark scheme includes any
amendments made at the standardisation meeting attended by all examiners and is the scheme
which was used by them in this examination. The standardisation…
Definition of Chemistry:
• Chemistry is the study of the
composition, structure, and properties
of matter, the processes that matter
undergoes, and energy changes that
accompany these processes.
Branches of Chemistry
Branches of chemistry:
• 1. Organic chemistry: the study of
most carbon-containing compound
• 2. Inorganic chemistry: the study…
Chemistry 245 Lab
Author: Kylie Bui
Team Members: Nhien Tran and Veronica Barrezueta
Introduction: the purpose of this lab was to purify an impure solid through the process of recrystallization through the help of hot gravity filtration and vacuum filtration. Recrystallization is done by dissolving solids to remove its impurities based on their differences in solubility. In this experiment, two main objectives include comparing the purities between the desired…
Annotation of “Circumference of Geography”
The summary of this paper is that Geography is a dominant figure in our world that has no real weaknesses or negatives about it. Many of its relatives overlap it and yet are trying to suck it into their own category of study. American geography and European geography both have different views on Geography being pure and being absorbed. Typically most people see Geography as a main domain of its relatives (mining, zoology, meterology,etc)…
CHEMISTRY 151 Hybrid-Fall
Instructor: Dr. Ryan McDonnell
Class: N309 Lab: N308
Course Description: CHM 151 – General Chemistry I.
This course covers fundamental principles and laws of chemistry. Topics include measurement, atomic and molecular structure, periodicity, chemical reactions, chemical bonding, stoichiometry, thermochemistry, gas laws, and solutions. Upon completion, students should be able to demonstrate an understanding of fundamental chemical laws and…