Chemistry Study Guide Essay examples

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Chemistry Final Study Guide

1)CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRON Charge: It is a negatively charged particle.
Location in the atom: Electrons revolve around the nucleus of atom in different circular orbits.
CHARACTERISTICS OF PROTON Charge: Proton is a positively charged particle.
Position in atom: Protons are present in the nucleus of atom.
CHARACTERISTICS OF NEUTRON charge: It is a neutral particle because it has no charge.
Location in the atom: Neutrons are present in the nucleus of an atom.
2)Most of the mass is in the nucleus
3) The period number of an element signifies the highest unexcited energy level for an electron in that element. The number of elements in a period increases as you move down the periodic table because there are more sublevels per level as the energy level of the atom increases
Groups:Columns of elements help define element groups. Elements within a group share several common properties. Groups are elements have the same outer electron arrangement.
4)Alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, transition metals, halogens, and noble gases
5) The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom determines an element's atomic number
Atomic mass is number of protons and neutrons
7) Metals: They are usually shiny, very dense, and only melt at high temperatures.
Non-metals:Their surface is dull and they don’t conduct heat and electricity
Metalloids:They can be shiny or dull and their shape is easily changed
8)Metals on left of periodic table, nonmetals & metalloids on the right
10) Period - atomic radius decreases as you go from left to right across a period Group - atomic radius increases as you go down a group.
Period - ionization energy increases as you go from left to right across a period.
Group - ionization energy decreases as you go down a group.
Period- electronegativity increases as you go from left to right across a period.
Group - electronegativity decreases as you go down a group.
11) The process of giving or taking electrons away from a normal atom and turning it into an ion is called ionization.
12) valence electrons are the electrons of an atom that can participate in the formation of chemical bonds with other atoms. For main group elements, only the outermost electrons are valence electrons
14) By gaining or losing electrons to get 8
15) In a regular repeating pattern of some sort
16) A polyatomic ion is two or more atoms that are covalently bonded to one another and possess a charge
19) In a COVALENT bond, two atoms are bound together because they each want to "share" each other's electrons--each atom has a sort of "claim" on the same limited number of electrons.
In an IONIC bond, two atoms totally exchange electrons so that each atom can-- separately--have a more "stable" valence shell. This exchange, however, causes the overall charge of each atom to change: the atom that gained electrons now has a negative charge & the atom that lost electrons now has a positive charge. These two atoms, who were still separate atoms when they made this exchange, are now positively & negatively charged IONS that are attracted to one another due to their overall charges. This mutual attraction of their electrical CHARGES is what causes their bond.
Covalent bonds in which the sharing of the electron pair is unequal, with the electrons spending more time around the more nonmetallic atom, are called polar covalent bonds. The properties of metals suggest that…