Supporting teaching & learning in schools level 3
93 Desborough Aveunue
Child and young person development
All children are different and develop at their own pace. The rate of development varies in children even though the pattern in which they will develop will be the same. A child development can be measured through physical, social, emotional and language developmental milestones.
It is very important that you recognize that children’s developmental progress is holistic. All aspects are developing at the same time although sometimes one aspect of development may appear to take priority over others.
Main features of changes and differences
Babies heads are bigger in proportion to their bodies in comparison with older children. Babies.
Babies heads are approximately one third to one quarter of their total length.
Toddlers heads are approximately one quarter to one fifth of their total height. Growth rates
Babies heads initially grow more quickly than their bodies but gradually the growth of the head slows down and the body and limbs grow more quickly.
Between two years and the onset of puberty, children grow at a relatively steady rate
Body changes from about 10 years girls may begin to develop secondary sex characteristics and develop breasts and broader hips.
They may also grow body hair the feet and hands of most adolescents will reach their adult size before they gain their ultimate height.
Child development practices have carried out a lot of research on young children to work out what most children can do at different ages and the rate at which they grow. From this search, milestones of development have been identified. A ‘milestone of development’ refers to the age at which most children should have reached a certain stage of development, for example, walking alone by 18 months, or smiling at six weeks.
Many children will have reached that stage of development much earlier, but what matters is whether a child has reached it by the milestone age. The important thing to remember is that all children develop at different rates and may be earlier in achieving some aspects of development and later in others.
Development stages – Ages 0-3
By 6 months the child can:
Grasps objects when they touch the palm of the hand
Head and eyes move together
Kicks legs and waves arms
Can lift head and turn when on front
Watches movements of own hands, plays with own hands
By 6 months and 1 year
Sits with support
Pushes head, neck and chest off floor with arms when on front
Uses whole hand in palmar grasp, passes toy from one hand to another
Sits alone without support
Reaches out for toys when sitting
May crawl or shuffle
Lifts block but can only release by dropping
Will take and hold a small brick in each hand
between one year and two years
Stands alone and starts to walk holding on (‘cruising’)
Picks up anything tiny from the floor using neat pincer grip
Clicks two cubes together
Puts cubes in box when shown
Can walk alone
Tries to kick a ball, rolls and throws ball
Can use a spoon
Holds a crayon in primitive tripod grasp and scribbles
Can use a spoon
between two and three years
Walks up and down stairs with both feet on one step. Climbs on furniture
Builds a tower of six bricks
Uses a spoon for self-feeding
Starts to use preferred hand
Draws circles and dots
Social and emotional development
newborn to 6 months
Responds positively to main carer
Imitates facial expressions
Stares at bright shiny objects
Gazes mo at carers
Social sm9ile at carers
Smiles, engages and vocalists with carers
between 6 to 9 months
Starts to show interest in other babies, smiles
Becomes more interested in social interaction, depending on amount of time spent with