Two basic principles of developmental psychopathology are multifinality and equifinality, which lead to caution in diagnosis and treatment. This field requires that development arises from genetic, social, cognitive, emotional, and cultural influences across time. Multifinality means there are many final manifestations, while equifinality means one symptom can have many causes. Attention-deficit and bipolar disorders, learning disabilities, and autism spectrum disorder are general principles of childhood psychopathology.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder that appears in early childhood. You may know it by ADD or ADHD; this disorder makes it difficult for people to inhibit their responses. These responses involve everything from their movement to speech to attentiveness. The signs usually appear before the age of seven. It can be difficult to label a child with this disorder. There are three primary characteristics of ADD/ADHD, which consist inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
Bipolar disorder is characterized by extreme mood swings, from euphoria to deep depression. Children with bipolar disorder go through unusual mood changes. Bipolar disorder is difficult to differentiate from other psychiatric illness in youth. Several factors contribute to bipolar disorder; including genes, abnormal brain structure, and brain function and anxiety disorders. There is no treatment for this disorder; it is managed by taking medication and going to therapy.
Many people have some specific learning disability that leads to difficulty in mastering a particular skill. The most common learning disability is dyslexia. Dyslexia leads to problems with reading and comprehension of written language. Children with dyslexia will have trouble with writing, spelling, speaking and math. There are a wide range of dyslexia cases.
Dyscalculia is a similar learning disability in math. Most children can look at a series…